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calculator homework This homework will give you practice in parsing, inheritance, interfaces, event-driven programming, packages, ArrayList, and designs involving programs that use the Action in College Essay MVC (Model-View-Controller) model of my dark side, interaction. In case you have not already noticed, this is an Affirmative in College Essay, Open homework. Of Tuberculosis. You must read the Open/Closed policy before working on this project. The policy can be found at policy. Affirmative Action. Your company wants to new deal essay, build a suite of interactive calculators, e.g., a integer calculator, a scientific calculator, a financial calculator, etc. For this homework, you will create a generic calculator class, called GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine), which provides a general framework for the implementation of Affirmative in College Admissions, several types of film lone, calculators. By extending the Affirmative in College GenericCalcEng you will be able to implement concrete calculators (e.g., scientific, financial, etc.). George. For this project, in addition to implementing the GenericCalcEng, class you will implement two classes that implement two concrete calculators. This first class is named RestaurantCalcEng, and Action in College Admissions Essay it represents a calculator used in fast food restaurants.

The second one is friendship, named ScientificCalcEng, and Action in College Essay represents a typical scientific calculator. We will provide code to be used in the development of Graphical User Interfaces for the concrete calculator classes you will implement. The code will allow you to easily define a calculator interface in no time. George And Lennie Friendship. More details about the program are provided in Affirmative in College Essay, the Specifications section. George. Note: The bulk of the Action in College implementation associated with this project is the implementation of the logic that creates functional calculators. Literary Achebe's Refugee Mother Refugees. This logic is in College Essay, what the JUnit module (that you will create) will test.

Developing the actual GUIs is a minor component of this project and something that should take you almost no time. For example, if you choose not to implement the GUIs for the calculators you will notice that you will pass all the tests in the submit server, as we don't check for Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Mother and Child and in, that component via the submit server. Affirmative Action In College Admissions Essay. The graders will check the GUIs manually. Take note of the point distribution for this project as this will tell you the weight associated with the GUIs. This homework will be graded as follows: 75% - Implementation 10% - Implementation of your JUnit Test 5% - Restaurant Calculator GUI 5% - Scientific Calculator GUI 5% - Time log. Calculator Operation Model.

Note: In the description below an operand represents a numeric value and an operator any user-defined computation (+, -, factorial, etc.) Most numerical calculators process the film survivor following type of Action in College Admissions, operations: unary operations - Those that require one operand (e.g., sine(10)) binary operations - Those requiring two operands (e.g., 10 + 30) no-operand operations - Clear operations, backspace operations, constant definition, etc. Before completing any calculations, all calculators need to identify whether a unary, binary, or no-operand operation is being requested, along with the operand(s) (if any). Army. Once the identification has been made, the in College Admissions actual processing (determined by the operand) will take place. Essay. This means that, if you implement several calculators with different operands (e.g., a scientific, restaurant and Affirmative Action in College binary calculators), parts of your processing will be common to all calculators. Macau Tourisim. Specifically, the Affirmative in College Admissions Essay common processing is the of tuberculosis identification of the in College Admissions Essay kind of operation requested and the operands. New Deal Essay. To implement this common processing without code duplication, the best approach is to define a class that provides methods that tell us what operator needs to be processed along with the operands.

By using this class, we need only worry about in College Essay, implementing the computation associated with each particular operator. For this project you will implement such a class. New Deal Essay. We name this class GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine) , because, as its name implies, it provides the generic behavior associated with any calculator. The class identifies operators and operands, and Affirmative Admissions Essay provides support for common operations found in on pakistan army, any calculator (e.g., processing of Action Essay, backspaces, reset, etc.). This class cannot generate any results.

It just identifies what needs to film lone survivor, be done and relies on Action a subclass to actually implement the processing associated with an essay, operator. Implementing a calculator using GenericCalcEng. Let's suppose you want to Action, implement a simple floating-point calculator that supports the operators +, -, *, /, =, backspace, and film reset. Affirmative Admissions. To implement this calculator you just need to create a new class (let's called it BasicCalc ) which extends the GenericCalcEng. By extending GenericCalcEng, BasicCalc doesn't need to implement the backspace or the reset operation as those are already provided by the base class. Furthermore, it doesn't need to implement any code to identify operands (e.g., reading digits) or code that identifies operators. On The And Traditions Of Judaism. All this processing is Action Admissions, taken care of by essay on pakistan army GenericCalcEng. Affirmative Action In College. What does BasicCalc implement?

It provides the on pakistan army GenericCalcEng with a list of the Affirmative Action operators (the name and of tuberculosis type) the Action in College Admissions Essay BasicCalc will process. Essay And Traditions. In addition, it provides the implementation of Admissions, abstract methods present in the GenericCalcEng class. One of these methods takes care of processing unary operations, the my dark side other takes care of binary operations and Admissions Essay a third one is in on pakistan army, charge of processing constants. Admissions. The GenericCalcEng will call these methods to process operators it identifies. As you can see, defining new calculators is relatively easy, once the GenericCalcEng has been implemented. More details about the essay on pakistan GenericCalcEng and the classes you must implement are provided in the Specifications section. Action Essay. The code distribution is available by survivor checking out the project named p8 . Affirmative Essay. The code distribution provides you with the following: A library called cmsc131CalculatorLib . A number of my dark side, Java files. - This class represents the set of Affirmative Action in College Admissions, JUnit public tests. The expected results for each test can be found in the text files with a pub prefix.

A time log file. Calculator Library (We provide this.) The cmsc131CalculatorLib provides a number of Elements in Chinua Poem, Mother and Child Refugees, support classes that you will need for this homework. The classes you will find in this package are: GenericCalcGUI : A class that implements the Affirmative Action Essay generic calculator GUI. GUIListener : An interface that defines the callback method used by the GenericCalcGUI class. Essay Customs And Traditions. Java Files (We provide these.) : This simple class is Action Admissions, just a convenient encapsulation of of tuberculosis, two entities, an in College, operator name and lone survivor its type. Although its use is Action Essay, not required, it is likely to come in handy. The operator name is just a single String symbol (e.g. + or /, Super, Fries). The type is used in your processing. My Dark Side. Types include things like whether this is Action Admissions Essay, a binary or unary operator (see below). The class consists of a constructor with the effects of tuberculosis following prototype: public CalcOperator(String operatorName, int operatorType) This class also provides two accessor methods, getName( ) and Affirmative in College Admissions Essay getType( ) , which return these values.

The various operator types are encoded as symbolic constants (as int values). The operator type names for new deal essay, this assignment are: For example, a binary operator such as + has the operator type CalcOperator.BINARY_OP . CalcEngExample : This class provides an example of a calculator engine implemented by extending the GenericCalcEng class. It is provided just to Affirmative, help you get an idea of how to design your own calculator engine. Effects Of Tuberculosis. GUIExample : This class provides an example of how to implement a GUI interface and controller using the Action in College Essay GenericGUI class.

Again, it is new deal essay, provided to Action in College, help you get an my dark side, idea of how to Affirmative in College, design your own calculator GUI. TestsSupport : This class has support code for the JUnit public tests. You will implement GenericCalcEng , a Java abstract class that represents the model component of the Elements in Chinua and in Kassabova's Refugees MVC paradigm for Admissions, the generic (common) part of the new deal essay calculator. The generic calculator can be tailored to recognize any unary and binary operators we want to Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, implement. The generic calculator parses (that is, it syntactically classifies or recognizes) operators and operands and new deal essay passes those values to methods in Affirmative Action in College Admissions, the derived classes that will take care of Literary Ilustrated in Chinua Poem, and Child and in, implementing the Affirmative Action operator.

We can classify the GenericCalcEng operators into the following categories or types : Unary operators : Those requiring only new deal essay, one operand. Action Admissions Essay. (For example, cosine, square root, etc.) Binary operators : Those requiring two operands. (For example, addition, multiplication, etc.) Assignment operator (=) : Evaluates and displays the macau tourisim result of Affirmative in College Admissions, a binary operator. Clear operator : Clears the entire state of the calculator. Clear last operand : Resets the last operand entered, by macau tourisim setting it to 0. Affirmative Action In College Admissions Essay. Backspace : Erases the essay army last character of the display. Constant : Initializes the current operand with a constant value, e.g., the function associated with a PI calculator button. The GenericCalcEng operands are defined by the digits 0 through 9 and/or a decimal point. This means that the Affirmative in College Admissions Essay generic calculator will recognize as valid operands the following entries: 123, 123.45, 0, 0.56. There is no need for and lennie friendship, a '-' sign, since negation (if needed) is Action, handled at the operator level (e.g., unary +/-).

GenericCalcEng Public Operands. The public methods of the new deal essay GenericCalcEng class are: Default (no argument) constructor : Defines the Affirmative Action Admissions Essay calculator state to on The, be ready to in College Admissions, process selections. Essay On The Customs And Traditions Of Judaism. The display unit is initialized with the Action value of 0. addToOperatorList : Because a GenericCalcEng works with different concrete calculators, it needs to Literary Refugee and in, keep track of which operators the Affirmative Action in College Essay calculator will support. The generic calculator engine does not apply these operators, since that is and lennie, left to Admissions, the derived calculator classes. But it does need to know, for example, that sqrt is the name of a unary operator. In order to and lennie friendship, know this, a GenericCalcEng object maintains a list of Action, operators and of tuberculosis their associated types. Affirmative Admissions. This list must be implemented using an effects, ArrayList . The list starts out Affirmative in College Admissions empty, and my dark side this method is called to add a given operator and its type to Essay, this list. Here is its prototype: public void addToOperatorList(String operatorName, int operatorType) The parameter operatorName is the on pakistan String name of the Action in College Essay operator (e.g., + or sqrt). New Deal Essay. The operatorType identifies the operator type as one of the types given above (UNARY_OP, BINARY_OP, etc.), as given in Affirmative Action Admissions, the table above (see code distribution).

The entire list of and lennie friendship, operators must be given before the Admissions Essay calculator is actually used. processSelection : This method implements the my dark side action(s) that take place whenever a calculator button has been clicked. For example, to add the Affirmative Action Admissions Essay numbers 42 and Essay on The Customs and Traditions of Judaism 5 the Essay user click the of Judaism sequence of Admissions Essay, buttons: 4, 2, +,5, and =. This would result in five calls being made to this method, each time passing the name of the Literary Refugee and Child Kassabova's button selected as the argument. Here is the prototype: public void processSelection(String selection) The method recognizes digits, the period and operators. Affirmative. It combines digit(s) and/or the period in order to generate operands. George And Lennie. You may assume the operator input is Affirmative Action, valid. This method will also trigger the execution of any operator once the and lennie friendship appropriate operands (if any) have been identified and Affirmative Essay will update, if need be, a string object representing the calculator display. George. Thus, processSelection is the core method of the GenericCalcEng class. Action Admissions. This key method is on The and Traditions, described in greater detail below. Affirmative. getDisplayContents : As the macau tourisim calculator is Action in College Essay, used, your program must keep track of the on pakistan quantity to be shown in the calculators display unit. This method returns a String that represents the calculator's current display contents.

It is called by Affirmative Action in College Essay the GUI whenever the display needs to george and lennie friendship, be updated. public String getDisplayContents() For example, when the calculator starts up, a call to this function will return 0. After the user clicks on in College Admissions Essay the button 4 (which causes processSelection(4) to be called) the new contents of the display will be 4. Literary Elements Ilustrated In Chinua Achebe's Refugee Mother And Child Refugees. After clicking on Action in College Admissions 5 (causing the call processSelection(5)) the display contents will be 45. processUnaryOperator : This is an abstract method that must be provided by the concrete subclass (e.g., ScientificCalcEng) public abstract String processUnaryOperator(String operand, String operatorName) This method is called by processSelection once a unary operator and film lone its operand have been identified. The processUnaryOperator method must implement the Affirmative in College Essay functionality of all the essay on pakistan unary operators provided through the addToOperatorList method. Note that the argument is Affirmative Essay, passed in as a String (not double or integer). Army. Rather than converting digits to numbers immediately as each digit button is Admissions Essay, pressed, it is easier to concatenate the digits into a string, then pass the string to Elements in Chinua Refugee and Child and in Refugees, processUnaryOperator (or processBinaryOperator below), and in College Admissions then convert the result to a number. You may assume the macau tourisim operator input is Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, valid. processBinaryOperator : This is an effects of tuberculosis, abstract method similar to Affirmative Action in College Admissions, processUnaryOperator that deals with binary operators. You may assume the operator input is valid. public abstract String processBinaryOperator(String firstOperand, String operatorName, String secondOperand) processConstantOperator : This method is of Judaism, called by processSelection once a constant operator has been identified. The processConstantOperator method returns a String representing the constant value associated with the operatorName parameter.

You may assume the Affirmative in College Admissions operator input is new deal essay, valid. Action Admissions. public abstract String processConstantOperator(String operatorName) Feel free to add any additional private methods as you see fit. However, you may not add any public methods beyond the essay on pakistan army ones specified above. As mentioned above, the Admissions Essay processSelection method does not apply any binary or unary operators, since this is Literary Ilustrated Achebe's Refugee Refugees, done in Affirmative in College, the concrete derived classes (e.g., ScientificCalcEng). For example, if the operator is the binary operator +, then processSelection will call a method in the derived class to apply the Essay Customs and Traditions addition operator. (See processUnaryOperator, processBinaryOperator and Affirmative Essay processConstantOperator methods above). On the other hand, operators that are deemed to Literary Elements Ilustrated Achebe's Poem, Refugee, be common to all calculators (e.g., ASSIGN_OP, CLEAR, CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND, BACKSPACE) are implemented by this method. For purposes of testing, it is necessary that you implement your calculator functions in the same way that we do. If you consider the calculator's behavior when the user keys in Action in College, the sequence 3 4 + 5 6 = the film lone number 34 is the first operand, the operator is +, and the second operand is in College Admissions Essay, 56. When = is seen, the binary operator + is applied, and the resulting sum of effects of tuberculosis, 90 is displayed. How does the calculator know that 3 and 4 are parts of the first operand and Affirmative in College Essay 5 and 6 are parts of the second operand?

The calculator is controlled by my dark side its state, which is made up of the Action Admissions following variables: firstOperand : (String) The left operand of a binary operation (34 above). Macau Tourisim. secondOperand : (String) The right operand of Admissions Essay, a binary operation (56 above). currentOperator : (String) The binary operator (+ above) which is to george, be applied to Affirmative Action Essay, these operands. displayContents : (String) The current contents of the display unit. context : (int) Indicates the context in which the new deal essay calculator is currently running (see below). In College Essay. theOperators : (ArrayList) A list of the operators and their respective types for the current calculator. Keep in mind that you can add any other instance variables you see fit and effects of tuberculosis you don't need to use exactly the variable names we provided. In College Essay. The calculator's operation depends on the context. The possible contexts (states) are: Reading-First-Operand ( RFO ): This is the default context. Any digits that are entered are stored in the first operand. Essay Customs And Traditions. Reading-Second-Operand ( RSO ): This context is entered whenever a binary operator is Affirmative Action in College Admissions, entered. On The Customs And Traditions. Digits that are entered are stored in the second operand.

Error ( ERR ): You are not required to Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, implement this context (since we will not test for film lone, it explicitly). This context is entered whenever an Action Admissions, error occurs (e.g., invalid input such as 3.4.5 or division by Essay on The Customs of Judaism zero). When in this context the Affirmative calculator ignores all operations until the effects operation CLEAR operation is Affirmative Action in College Admissions, performed. Semantics of george friendship, GenericCalcEng Operators. The calculator starts in the default state, which is in College Essay, described in the CLEAR operator below. In the description below, the on pakistan army term current operand refers to either firstOperand or secondOperand, depending on Action in College Admissions the current context, RFO or RSO, respectively. New Deal Essay. CLEAR : Sets the calculator to Affirmative Action in College, the default state where the display shows the value of my dark side, 0, and the context is in College Admissions Essay, RFO. CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND : Sets the george and lennie current operand to Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, zero. Updates the display with a 0 value. BACKSPACE : Removes the rightmost character (whether a digit or a decimal point) of the current operand.

If the rightmost character is the only character, it replaces the Essay on The Customs and Traditions character with 0. Affirmative Action Admissions Essay. It updates the display accordingly. ASSIGN_OP : If the context is not RSO, this operation is ignored. In the RSO context, the processBinaryOperator() method is lone, invoked. The first operand is in College Essay, updated with the result of the most recently specified operator, the result of the computation is survivor, displayed, and we return to the RFO context. Action Admissions. UNARY_OP : The processUnaryOperator() method is film lone survivor, invoked on the current operand. The display is Affirmative in College, updated with the result of the computation. CONSTANT_OP : The processConstantOperator() method is invoked. Friendship. The current operand is initialized with the value returned by processConstantOperator(). Affirmative Admissions Essay. The display is updated with the survivor constant value. BINARY_OP : There are two cases, depending on the current context.

RFO : The first operand and Affirmative Action in College Admissions current operator are saved, and the context is changed to RSO. Essay Army. The display is Affirmative Admissions Essay, not changed. RSO : There are two cases, depending on whether a second operand has yet been entered: If no input has been provided for Elements in Chinua Achebe's, the second operand then no calculation is performed, and Affirmative in College Admissions Essay the current operator is saved. (For example, the input 4 + * 6 = results in Literary Elements Poem, Refugee Mother and in, 4*6=24, and Action in College the + is george and lennie, ignored.) Otherwise (if the Affirmative Admissions Essay second operand is effects of tuberculosis, nonempty) then the in College Admissions Essay previously saved current operator is on The of Judaism, now performed by invoking the Admissions Essay processBinaryOperator() method. The result is stored as the first operand, and survivor the display is Action, updated to this value as well. The second operand is Elements Ilustrated Achebe's Refugee Mother and Child Kassabova's Refugees, reset to Affirmative in College Essay, empty, and the given operator becomes the new current operator. On The Customs And Traditions. (This allows us to chain binary operators together, so that 3 + 4 * 5 = results in (3+4)*5 = 35.) Creating calculator engines using the GenericCalcEng class. In order to in College Essay, have an operational calculator we must extend the GenericCalcEng class. The subclass will specify the operators and macau tourisim provide the Affirmative in College Admissions implementation of the GenericCalcEng abstract methods. The class CalcEngExample, part of the survivor code distribution provides an Admissions, example of creating a very simple calculator based on survivor the GenericCalcEng. Once you have implemented GenericCalcEng and Essay one of its subclasses we have a fully operational calculator. However, it is not one that is and lennie friendship, easy to Affirmative Action in College, use.

We have provided a class called GenericCalcGUI (Generic Calculator Graphical User Interface) that will enable you to create a complete calculator GUI. We will describe the process for effects of tuberculosis, a basic floating-point calculator ( which you do not need to implement for Action in College, this project ). You will need to implement a similar process for both the restaurant and scientific calculators. New Deal Essay. The setup for these is exactly analogous to the basic calculator (just replace Basic with Restaurant or Scientific below). Affirmative Action In College Admissions Essay. As you read this, please refer to the file (given in the code distribution). New Deal Essay. It illustrates how to create a simple GUI with a couple of Action in College Admissions, buttons. The behavior of is trivial, and simply echoes back the film lone survivor user's selection. First, you would define a class BasicCalc that implements the GUIListener interface (see the Action in College code distribution).

This interface requires that your class BasicCalc implement the my dark side following callback method (which is in College Admissions, invoked whenever the user clicks on a button). Essay On Pakistan. Its job is to Affirmative, process the selected operation and effects update the calculator display contents. Affirmative Action In College Admissions. (More about this below.) public void buttonSelected(String selection) In your BasicCalc class define an macau tourisim, instance variable, say gui , that is Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, of type GenericCalcGUI. (We have provided the GenericCalcGUI class for essay, you as part of the cmsc131CalculatorLib.) Create a new GenericCalcGUI in Action in College Essay, your BasicCalc constructor, and macau tourisim save a reference to in College Admissions, it in this instance variable. Of Tuberculosis. The GenericCalcGUI constructor takes two parameters: a String giving the Affirmative Action in College Admissions calculator window title, and effects a two-dimensional array of Affirmative in College Admissions, String objects representing the on pakistan positions and in College Admissions Essay labels of the Essay on The Customs and Traditions buttons in the calculator. Each row of strings represents a row of buttons in the GUI. This can be a ragged array, implying that some rows have fewer buttons than others. Affirmative Action In College Admissions. Finally, you need to inform the film lone survivor GUI that your BasicCalc class is the one implementing the callback method (buttonSelected). Action In College. In order to film lone, do this, from Affirmative Action Admissions, within the BasicCalc class constructor, invoke the gui's setGUIListener() method as follows: In order for your calculator to possess the desired functionality, you must create a second instance variable in your BasicCalc class. This variable stores a reference to essay, a concrete instance of a GenericCalcEng class that implements the functionality of the basic calculator.

Let's call it engine . Action Admissions. In your BasicCalc constructor, create such a new instance and assign it to engine. Now, when the buttonSelected() callback is called, it needs to perform the my dark side following operations: invoke the engine's processSelection() method to Affirmative in College Admissions, process the selected button, get the my dark side contents of the calculator's display (as a String) by Affirmative Action in College Admissions invoking the engine's getDisplayContents() method, and update the calculator's display contents. This is done by film lone survivor invoking the Action Essay method gui.setDisplayContents() method. New Deal Essay. Its argument is the value returned from the Affirmative Action previous step. New Deal Essay. The following figure illustrates how the various classes interact at the user-interface level for this basic calculator example. The picture is similar for the restaurant and scientific calculator. Remember, you don't need to Affirmative Action in College Admissions, implement this basic calculator.

We are just using it as an new deal essay, example of how to Action in College Essay, set up a GUI for on pakistan, any calculator. Action In College. Classes you must define. Essay Of Judaism. For this homework you must define the Admissions Essay following classes: GenericCalcEng : Implements the generic calculator. RestaurantCalcEng: This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and implements the engine of of tuberculosis, a floating-point calculator used in Affirmative Action in College Essay, a restaurant. Essay Customs Of Judaism. The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). Affirmative Action In College Admissions. The functions expected from army, this calculator are as follows. Admissions Essay. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng using the Essay on The Customs of Judaism addToOperatorList() method.) For the Affirmative Action Admissions restaurant calculator only film survivor, , result values should be displayed using two decimal points. Action Admissions Essay. This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Achebe's and in following example illustrates. double value = 78.123; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(0.00); String valueStr = decimalFormat.format(value); A value of 78.12 will be stored in valueStr. Affirmative Action In College. RestaurantCalc : The RestaurantCalcEng class only performs the calculator operations.

The RestaurantCalc class sets up the effects of tuberculosis necessary connections to Affirmative Action in College Admissions, the GUI to of tuberculosis, create the actual restaurant calculator. See the file in the code distribution) for an example of Affirmative in College, how to george and lennie friendship, do this. Affirmative In College Admissions Essay. The GUI appearance must match the GUI presented in effects, the Sample Run section. ScientificCalcEng : This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and Action Essay implements the Essay on The Customs and Traditions of Judaism engine of Affirmative Essay, a floating-point scientific calculator. The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). The functions expected from this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng with the addToOperatorList() method.) Most of the aforementioned operators can be found in effects of tuberculosis, the Java Math class. Affirmative In College Admissions. For the scientific calculator only , values with no fractional part should be displayed without a decimal point. Literary Elements Ilustrated Poem, Mother And Child. This format requirement can be satisfied by Affirmative Action in College Admissions using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. double result = 12.0; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(); String str = decimalFormat.format(result); A value of 12 will be stored in str (instead of george and lennie friendship, 12.0). The call to method setGroupingUsed( false ) is Affirmative Essay, used to macau tourisim, disable the automatic insertion of commas.

With this call the value 12345678.9 would be converted to Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, 12345678.9, and Ilustrated Achebe's Refugee Mother Kassabova's Refugees without it the Affirmative value would be converted to 12,345,678.9 instead. New Deal Essay. ScientificCalc : The ScientificCalcEng class only Action in College Admissions, performs the effects of tuberculosis calculator operations. The ScientificCalc class sets up the GUI for the scientific calculator. See the file in Affirmative Admissions Essay, the code distribution) for an example of new deal essay, how to Affirmative Action Admissions, do this. The GUI appearance must match the and lennie friendship GUI presented in Affirmative in College Essay, the Sample Run section. Essay Army. Note: For all calculators defined above, the standard arithmetic rules of precedence do not apply. For example, in Affirmative Action, the expression 34 + -56 * .5 the first two operands are added before multiplication is applied, so the result is -11 (not 6). My Dark Side. Packages you must define.

In order to gain experience in designing a programming project involving packages, you must create the following packages and arrange your classes as described below. The packages must be named using the names we have specified; otherwise, we will not be able to grade your project. Affirmative Admissions. (Remember that packages can be created in Eclipse using File → New → Package.) genericCalcEng : We have already created this package for you. Elements Ilustrated Achebe's Mother And Child Refugees. It contains the Affirmative in College GenericCalcEng class and the file we provided. Lone Survivor. restaurantCalc : Contains the RestaurantCalcEng and Action in College Admissions the RestaurantCalc classes. scientificCalc : Contains the ScientificCalcEng and Elements in Chinua Poem, Refugee Mother and Child and in Kassabova's the ScientificCalc classes. As with all programming assignments: You must use meaningful variable names and good indentation. You must avoid code duplication, by Affirmative Admissions calling appropriate methods (rather than cutting and pasting code). You may define your own private utility methods to Essay on The, perform often repeated tasks. Please do not change the names of any of the classes you are to implement, and use signatures given above for your methods . The graphical layout of your calculator must match those given in Action Admissions Essay, the sample run. You must use the film same package structure given above. Your operator list in GenericCalcEng must be implemented using ArrayList from the Java class library.

Test your program using the JUnit module you create and Affirmative Essay test your submission using the submit server. In this section we present two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement. This will guide you in determining how to set up the new deal essay GUIs. If you take a look at Affirmative in College the file and the pub*.txt files, you will be able to Literary Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Kassabova's, see the Admissions Essay processing associated with the the different operators each calculator implements. As you can see, you can tests your implementation without using GUIs. Here is an example that shows two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement, in their initial states.

We have provided a JUnit module representing the my dark side public tests. However, you need to create your own JUnit module to test your project. Define the Affirmative in College tests as you see fit. We expect at least three tests in the JUnit file. Name your JUnit test file Feel free to use the TestsSupport.processSeveralSelections method to process different key combinations, as we did in the Remember that you are not required to implement the following problem.

Please visit the course web page for information regarding challenge problem. For this challenge problem, you have three possible choices, each for macau tourisim, a particular number of gold stars. If you want to implement them all that is fine, however we can only grade one. IMPORTANT : For the challenge problem create a package called challenge . In that package should appear any classes needed to Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, complete your challenge problem implementation. The challenge problems below may require you to modify the Literary Elements in Chinua Refugee Kassabova's Refugees GenericCalcEng and in College other classes of your homework. Provide the film modified versions of these classes in the challenge package. Affirmative Action Admissions. Make sure you provide, in the challenge package, a file with a main method that allows us to macau tourisim, run the challenge problem calculator. Action. Also make sure that your Challenge class has a default constructor. Effects. Note: For the Affirmative in College Admissions challenge problem you must use the Customs of Judaism scientific calculator. Affirmative In College Essay. Make an entry in film, the timelog indicating which Challenge problem choice you have implemented. Add an option to the calculator that allows the display to Action in College Admissions Essay, show the results using commas.

For example, instead of 12345 the user would see 12,345. Film Lone. You should add a button to the GUI labeled com that allows the Affirmative in College Admissions user to turn this feature on and off. In Chinua Achebe's Refugee Mother And In Refugees. Step 2 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of 2) In addition to Affirmative Action in College, Choice 1 , add the army following memory functions to Affirmative, the calculator infrastructure: MS - Allows you to new deal essay, store in Action Admissions Essay, memory the new deal essay element currently being displayed. MR - Allows you to in College Admissions, use the value stored in on The and Traditions of Judaism, memory as the Affirmative Action Essay next operand. Any retrieved value is Literary Elements Refugee Mother and in Kassabova's Refugees, immediately displayed. Affirmative Admissions Essay. MC - Sets the memory to Essay and Traditions of Judaism, 0. You should add three buttons to the GUI labeled MS, MR, and MC, respectively. Choice 3 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of Action Essay, 3) In addition to Choice 1 and lone survivor Choice 2 , add parenthesis semantics to the calculator infrastructure. That means your calculator can process expressions surrounded by Action parenthesis, regardless of the my dark side level of nesting.

You should add two buttons to the GUI labeled ( and ). Feel free to place the Affirmative Action Essay GUI buttons wherever you consider to be best. Literary Elements Ilustrated In Chinua Poem, Refugee Kassabova's. Submit your project using the submit project option associated with Eclipse. Admissions. Remember to effects of tuberculosis, complete your time log before submitting your homework.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Philosophers are interested in a constellation of issues involving the concept of truth. A preliminary issue, although somewhat subsidiary, is to decide what sorts of things can be true. Is truth a property of sentences (which are linguistic entities in Action in College, some language or other), or is truth a property of propositions (nonlinguistic, abstract and timeless entities)? The principal issue is: What is friendship, truth? It is the problem of Affirmative Admissions, being clear about what you are saying when you say some claim or other is true. The most important theories of truth are the Correspondence Theory, the Semantic Theory, the Deflationary Theory, the Coherence Theory, and the Pragmatic Theory. They are explained and compared here.

Whichever theory of truth is advanced to settle the principal issue, there are a number of additional issues to be addressed: Can claims about the my dark side, future be true now ? Can there be some algorithm for finding truth – some recipe or procedure for in College, deciding, for any claim in the system of, say, arithmetic, whether the claim is true? Can the predicate is true be completely defined in other terms so that it can be eliminated, without loss of meaning, from any context in Elements in Chinua Mother and in, which it occurs? To what extent do theories of truth avoid paradox? Is the goal of scientific research to Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, achieve truth? The principal problem is to offer a viable theory as to what truth itself consists in, or, to put it another way, What is the nature of truth? To illustrate with an example – the problem is not: Is it true that there is extraterrestrial life? The problem is: What does it mean to say that it is true that there is extraterrestrial life? Astrobiologists study the former problem; philosophers, the latter.

This philosophical problem of and lennie friendship, truth has been with us for Action Admissions Essay, a long time. My Dark Side. In the first century AD, Pontius Pilate ( John 18:38) asked What is Affirmative in College Essay, truth? but no answer was forthcoming. The problem has been studied more since the turn of the twentieth century than at any other previous time. In the last one hundred or so years, considerable progress has been made in solving the problem. The three most widely accepted contemporary theories of truth are [i] the Correspondence Theory ; [ii] the Semantic Theory of Tarski and Davidson; and [iii] the Deflationary Theory of Frege and Ramsey. The competing theories are [iv] the new deal essay, Coherence Theory , and [v] the Pragmatic Theory . Affirmative Essay. These five theories will be examined after addressing the following question. 2. What Sorts of Things are True (or False)?

Although we do speak of true friends and my dark side false identities, philosophers believe these are derivative uses of true and Action Essay false. The central use of true, the more important one for philosophers, occurs when we say, for example, it's true that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh. Of Tuberculosis. Here,true is contrasted with false, not with fake or insincere. When we say that Montreal is in College Admissions, north of Pittsburgh, what sort of thing is it that is george, true? Is it a statement or a sentence or something else, a fact, perhaps? More generally, philosophers want to Affirmative in College, know what sorts of things are true and what sorts of things are false. Essay On Pakistan. This same question is expressed by asking: What sorts of things have (or bear) truth-values? The term truth-value has been coined by logicians as a generic term for in College Essay, truth or falsehood. To ask for the truth-value of P, is to ask whether P is true or whether P is false.

Value in truth-value does not mean valuable. It is effects, being used in a similar fashion to numerical value as when we say that the value of x in x + 3 = 7 is 4. Affirmative Action Admissions. To ask What is the truth-value of the statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh? is to ask whether the statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh is true or whether it is false. (The truth-value of that specific statement is my dark side, true .) There are many candidates for the sorts of things that can bear truth-values: statements sentence-tokens sentence-types propositions theories facts. assertions utterances beliefs opinions doctrines etc. What sorts of in College Essay, things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of Essay of Judaism, truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items (and, as a consequence, items within specific languages), or are they non-linguistic items, or are they both? In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i.e., things which have a determinate position in Action in College Essay, space and time, or should they be regarded as abstract entities, i.e., as being neither temporal nor spatial entities? Sentences are linguistic items: they exist in some language or other, either in on The, a natural language such as English or in an artificial language such as a computer language. However, the term sentence has two senses: sentence-token and sentence-type . These three English sentence-tokens are all of the Affirmative Admissions, same sentence-type: Saturn is the on pakistan army, sixth planet from the Sun. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun.

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. Sentence-tokens are concrete objects. They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of sounds, or patches of light on a computer monitor, etc. Sentence-tokens exist in space and time; they can be located in space and can be dated. Action. Sentence-types cannot be. They are abstract objects. (Analogous distinctions can be made for Elements Achebe's Poem,, letters, for words, for numerals, for in College Admissions Essay, musical notes on a stave, indeed for any symbols whatsoever.) Might sentence- tokens be the bearers of truth-values? One reason to favor tokens over types is to solve the my dark side, problems involving so-called indexical (or token reflexive) terms such as I and here and Action now.

Is the claim expressed by the sentence-type I like chocolate true or false? Well, it depends on who I is referring to. If Jack, who likes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what he has said is essay, true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what she has said is false. If it were sentence-types which were the Admissions Essay, bearers of truth-values, then the sentence-type I like chocolate would be both true and false – an unacceptable contradiction. The contradiction is avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the bearers of on pakistan army, truth-values, for in this case although there is only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens. A second reason for arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the in College Admissions Essay, bearers of of tuberculosis, truth-values has been advanced by Affirmative in College Essay nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to allow as few abstract objects as possible. My Dark Side. Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and Affirmative in College Admissions Essay sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the proper bearers of truth-values. But the effects, theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems. One objection to the nominalist theory is that had there never been any language-users, then there would be no truths. Affirmative In College. (And the same objection can be leveled against arguing that it is beliefs that are the bearers of truth-values: had there never been any conscious creatures then there would be no beliefs and, thus, no truths or falsehoods, not even the truth that there were no conscious creatures – an unacceptably paradoxical implication.) And a second objection – to the theory that sentence-tokens are the and lennie, bearers of truth-values – is that even though there are language-users, there are sentences that have never been uttered and never will be. (Consider, for example, the distinct number of Affirmative Action in College, different ways that a deck of playing cards can be arranged.

The number, 8?10 67 [the digit 8 followed by sixty-seven zeros], is so vast that there never will be enough sentence-tokens in the world's past or future to describe each unique arrangement. And there are countless other examples as well.) Sentence-tokens, then, cannot be identified as the my dark side, bearers of truth-values – there simply are too few sentence-tokens. Thus both theories – (i) that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, and (ii) that sentence-types are the bearers of truth-values – encounter difficulties. Affirmative Action Essay. Might propositions be the bearers of truth-values? To escape the dilemma of and Child and in Refugees, choosing between tokens and Affirmative Admissions types, propositions have been suggested as the primary bearers of Essay and Traditions, truth-values.

The following five sentences are in Affirmative Action Admissions, different languages, but they all are typically used to express the same proposition or statement. The truth of the proposition that Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun depends only on the physics of the solar system, and new deal essay not in any obvious way on human convention. By contrast, what these five sentences say does depend partly on human convention. Had English speakers chosen to adopt the word Saturn as the name of a different particular planet, the first sentence would have expressed something false. Action In College. By choosing propositions rather than sentences as the bearers of truth-values, this relativity to human conventions does not apply to Literary Ilustrated Achebe's Poem, Refugee and Child Kassabova's, truth, a point that many philosophers would consider to be a virtue in a theory of Affirmative Action Essay, truth. Propositions are abstract entities; they do not exist in space and time. They are sometimes said to be timeless, eternal, or omnitemporal entities. Terminology aside, the and lennie friendship, essential point is that propositions are not concrete (or material) objects. Nor, for that matter, are they mental entities; they are not thoughts as Frege had suggested in the nineteenth century. The theory that propositions are the bearers of truth-values also has been criticized.

Nominalists object to the abstract character of propositions. Another complaint is that it's not sufficiently clear when we have a case of the same propositions as opposed to similar propositions. This is much like the complaint that we can't determine when two sentences have exactly the same meaning. Affirmative Action Admissions. The relationship between sentences and propositions is a serious philosophical problem. Because it is the more favored theory, and for my dark side, the sake of expediency and consistency, the theory that propositions – and Affirmative Action Essay not sentences – are the bearers of truth-values will be adopted in this article. Essay On The And Traditions Of Judaism. When we speak below of truths, we are referring to true propositions. But it should be pointed out that virtually all the claims made below have counterparts in nominalistic theories which reject propositions.

b. Action. Constraints on Truth and Falsehood. There are two commonly accepted constraints on truth and essay army falsehood: These constraints require that every proposition has exactly one truth-value. Although the point is Action in College Admissions Essay, controversial, most philosophers add the further constraint that a proposition never changes its truth-value in space or time. Consequently, to Literary Elements Ilustrated Achebe's Poem, Refugee and in Kassabova's, say The proposition that it's raining was true yesterday but false today is to equivocate and not actually refer to just one proposition. Similarly, when someone at noon on January 15, 2000 in Vancouver says that the proposition that it is raining is true in Vancouver while false in Sacramento, that person is really talking of two different propositions: (i) that it rains in Vancouver at noon on January 15, 2000 and (ii) that it rains in Sacramento at Affirmative in College Essay noon on January 15, 2000. The person is saying proposition (i) is true and essay (ii) is false. c. Which Sentences Express Propositions? Not all sentences express propositions. The interrogative sentence Who won the World Series in 1951? does not; neither does the imperative sentence Please close the window.

Declarative (that is, indicative) sentences – rather than interrogative or imperative sentences – typically are used to express propositions. But do all declarative sentences express propositions? The following four kinds of Action, declarative sentences have been suggested as not being typically used to express propositions, but all these suggestions are controversial. 1. Sentences containing non-referring expressions. In light of the my dark side, fact that France has no king, Strawson argued that the in College, sentence, The present king of France is and Traditions of Judaism, bald, fails to express a proposition. In a famous dispute, Russell disagreed with Strawson, arguing that the sentence does express a proposition, and more exactly, a false one. 2. Predictions of future events. What about declarative sentences that refer to Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, events in the future? For example, does the sentence There will be a sea battle tomorrow express a proposition?

Presumably, today we do not know whether there will be such a battle. Because of this, some philosophers (including Aristotle who toyed with the new deal essay, idea) have argued that the in College Essay, sentence, at effects of tuberculosis the present moment, does not express anything that is now either true or false. Another, perhaps more powerful, motivation for adopting this view is the belief that if sentences involving future human actions were to express propositions, i.e., were to express something that is now true or false, then humans would be determined to perform those actions and so humans would have no free will. In College. To defend free will, these philosophers have argued, we must deny truth-values to predictions. This complicating restriction – that sentences about the future do not now express anything true or false – has been attacked by of tuberculosis Quine and others. These critics argue that the restriction upsets the logic we use to reason with such predictions.

For example, here is a deductively valid argument involving predictions: We've learned there will be a run on the bank tomorrow. If there will be a run on the bank tomorrow, then the CEO should be awakened. So, the in College Admissions, CEO should be awakened. Without assertions in this argument having truth-values, regardless of whether we know those values, we could not assess the argument using the canons of deductive validity and invalidity. We would have to say – contrary to deeply-rooted philosophical intuitions – that it is on The, not really an argument at all. (For another sort of rebuttal to the claim that propositions about the future cannot be true prior to the occurrence of the Affirmative Action in College Essay, events described, see Logical Determinism.) This very sentence expresses a false proposition and I'm lying are examples of my dark side, so-called liar sentences. A liar sentence can be used to generate a paradox when we consider what truth-value to assign it. As a way out of Action in College, paradox, Kripke suggests that a liar sentence is one of those rare declarative sentences that does not express a proposition. The sentence falls into the truth-value gap.

See the article Liar Paradox. 4. Sentences that state moral, ethical, or aesthetic values. Finally, we mention the so-called fact/value distinction. Throughout history, moral philosophers have wrestled with the issue of moral realism. Do sentences such as Torturing children is wrong – which assert moral principles – assert something true (or false), or do they merely express (in a disguised fashion) the speaker's opinions, or feelings or values? Making the latter choice, some philosophers argue that these declarative sentences do not express propositions. We return to my dark side, the principal question, What is truth? Truth is Action, presumably what valid reasoning preserves.

It is the new deal essay, goal of scientific inquiry, historical research, and business audits. Admissions Essay. We understand much of what a sentence means by understanding the conditions under which what it expresses is true. Yet the exact nature of truth itself is not wholly revealed by these remarks. Historically, the most popular theory of truth was the Correspondence Theory. First proposed in my dark side, a vague form by Action Admissions Plato and by Aristotle in his Metaphysics , this realist theory says truth is what propositions have by essay on pakistan army corresponding to a way the world is. The theory says that a proposition is true provided there exists a fact corresponding to it. In other words, for any proposition p, p is true if and only if p corresponds to a fact.

The theory's answer to the question, What is truth? is that truth is Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, a certain relationship—the relationship that holds between a proposition and Essay on The Customs and Traditions its corresponding fact. Perhaps an analysis of the relationship will reveal what all the truths have in common. Consider the proposition that snow is white. Remarking that the proposition's truth is its corresponding to the fact that snow is white leads critics to Affirmative, request an acceptable analysis of this notion of correspondence. Surely the correspondence is my dark side, not a word by word connecting of a sentence to its reference. It is some sort of exotic relationship between, say, whole propositions and facts. In presenting his theory of logical atomism early in Action in College Admissions, the twentieth century, Russell tried to show how a true proposition and its corresponding fact share the same structure. Inspired by the notion that Egyptian hieroglyphs are stylized pictures, his student Wittgenstein said the relationship is that of a picturing of facts by propositions, but his development of effects, this suggestive remark in Admissions Essay, his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus did not satisfy many other philosophers, nor after awhile, even Wittgenstein himself.

And what are facts? The notion of a fact as some sort of effects of tuberculosis, ontological entity was first stated explicitly in the second half of the nineteenth century. The Correspondence Theory does permit facts to Affirmative Action Admissions, be mind-dependent entities. McTaggart, and perhaps Kant, held such Correspondence Theories. The Correspondence theories of my dark side, Russell, Wittgenstein and Austin all consider facts to be mind-independent. But regardless of their mind-dependence or mind-independence, the Affirmative Action in College, theory must provide answers to questions of the Essay Customs and Traditions, following sort. Affirmative Action Admissions Essay. Canada is north of the on The of Judaism, U.S. can't be a fact. A true proposition can't be a fact if it also states a fact, so what is the ontological standing of a fact? Is the fact that corresponds to Brutus stabbed Caesar the same fact that corresponds to in College Admissions, Caesar was stabbed by Brutus, or is friendship, it a different fact?

It might be argued that they must be different facts because one expresses the relationship of stabbing but the other expresses the relationship of Affirmative in College, being stabbed, which is different. In addition to the specific fact that ball 1 is on effects, the pool table and Action Admissions Essay the specific fact that ball 2 is on the pool table, and so forth, is there the specific fact that there are fewer than 1,006,455 balls on the table? Is there the general fact that many balls are on and lennie, the table? Does the existence of general facts require there to be the Forms of Plato or Aristotle? What about the negative proposition that there are no pink elephants on the table? Does it correspond to the same situation in the world that makes there be no green elephants on the table? The same pool table must involve a great many different facts. These questions illustrate the difficulty in counting facts and Affirmative in College distinguishing them. The difficulty is well recognized by advocates of the Correspondence Theory, but critics complain that characterizations of facts too often circle back ultimately to saying facts are whatever true propositions must correspond to in order to be true. Davidson has criticized the notion of fact, arguing that if true statements correspond to anything, they all correspond to the same thing (in True to the Facts, Davidson [1984]).

Davidson also has argued that facts really are the true statements themselves; facts are not named by them, as the Correspondence Theory mistakenly supposes. Defenders of the Correspondence Theory have responded to these criticisms in a variety of ways. Sense can be made of the term correspondence, some say, because speaking of propositions corresponding to facts is merely making the general claim that summarizes the remark that. (i) The sentence, Snow is my dark side, white, means that snow is white, and (ii) snow actually is white, and so on for all the other propositions. Therefore, the Correspondence theory must contain a theory of means that but otherwise is not at fault. Other defenders of the Correspondence Theory attack Davidson's identification of facts with true propositions.

Snow is Action in College Admissions, a constituent of the Ilustrated in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee Mother, fact that snow is white, but snow is not a constituent of a linguistic entity, so facts and true statements are different kinds of entities. Recent work in possible world semantics has identified facts with sets of possible worlds. The fact that the Action Admissions, cat is on army, the mat contains the possible world in which the cat is on the mat and Adolf Hitler converted to Judaism while Chancellor of Germany. The motive for this identification is that, if sets of possible worlds are metaphysically legitimate and Affirmative Action Essay precisely describable, then so are facts. To capture what he considered to be the essence of the Correspondence Theory, Alfred Tarski created his Semantic Theory of Literary Elements Ilustrated Achebe's Poem, and in Kassabova's Refugees, Truth. In Tarski's theory, however, talk of correspondence and Affirmative in College of facts is my dark side, eliminated. (Although in early versions of his theory, Tarski did use the term correspondence in trying to explain his theory, he later regretted having done so, and dropped the term altogether since it plays no role within his theory.) The Semantic Theory is the successor to the Correspondence Theory. It seeks to preserve the core concept of Action Admissions Essay, that earlier theory but without the problematic conceptual baggage. For an illustration of the theory, consider the German sentence Schnee ist weiss which means that snow is white.

Tarski asks for the truth-conditions of the and lennie, proposition expressed by Admissions that sentence: Under what conditions is that proposition true? Put another way: How shall we complete the following in English: 'The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true . '? His answer: We can rewrite Tarski's T-condition on george and lennie friendship, three lines: The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true if and only if snow is in College Essay, white. Line 1 is about truth. Line 3 is not about Essay and Traditions of Judaism, truth – it asserts a claim about the Affirmative in College Essay, nature of the world. Thus T makes a substantive claim.

Moreover, it avoids the main problems of the earlier Correspondence Theories in that the terms fact and correspondence play no role whatever. A theory is new deal essay, a Tarskian truth theory for language L if and only if, for each sentence S of L , if S expresses the proposition that p, then the theory entails a true T-proposition of the Affirmative Essay, bi-conditional form: In the effects of tuberculosis, example we have been using, namely, Schnee ist weiss, it is quite clear that the Action Admissions Essay, T-proposition consists of a containing (or outer) sentence in Essay Customs and Traditions of Judaism, English, and a contained (or inner or quoted) sentence in German: There are, we see, sentences in two distinct languages involved in this T-proposition. If, however, we switch the inner, or quoted sentence, to an English sentence, e.g. to Snow is white, we would then have: In this latter case, it looks as if only one language (English), not two, is Affirmative Action in College Admissions, involved in expressing the on The of Judaism, T-proposition. But, according to Affirmative Action in College Admissions, Tarski's theory, there are still two languages involved: (i) the language one of whose sentences is being quoted and (ii) the language which attributes truth to the proposition expressed by that quoted sentence.

The quoted sentence is Essay Customs, said to be an element of the object language , and the outer (or containing) sentence which uses the predicate true is in the metalanguage . Tarski discovered that in order to avoid contradiction in his semantic theory of truth, he had to restrict the object language to a limited portion of the metalanguage. Action Admissions. Among other restrictions, it is the metalanguage alone that contains the truth-predicates, true and false; the object language does not contain truth-predicates. It is new deal essay, essential to see that Tarski's T-proposition is not saying: This latter claim is Affirmative Action Essay, certainly true (it is a tautology), but it is no significant part of the analysis of the concept of truth – indeed it does not even use the words true or truth, nor does it involve an object language and a metalanguage. Tarski's T-condition does both.

a. Extending the Semantic Theory Beyond Simple Propositions. Tarski's complete theory is intended to work for (just about) all propositions, expressed by new deal essay non-problematic declarative sentences, not just Snow is white. Affirmative In College Admissions. But he wants a finite theory, so his theory can't simply be the infinite set of T propositions. Also, Tarski wants his truth theory to reveal the logical structure within propositions that permits valid reasoning to preserve truth. To do all this, the theory must work for effects, more complex propositions by showing how the truth-values of Affirmative Action Essay, these complex propositions depend on their parts, such as the truth-values of their constituent propositions. George And Lennie Friendship. Truth tables show how this is done for the simple language of Propositional Logic (e.g. the complex proposition expressed by Affirmative in College Admissions A or B is Essay and Traditions of Judaism, true, according to the truth table, if and only if proposition A is true, or proposition B is true, or both are true). Tarski's goal is to define truth for even more complex languages. Tarski's theory does not explain (analyze) when a name denotes an object or when an object falls under a predicate; his theory begins with these as given.

He wants what we today call a model theory for quantified predicate logic. His actual theory is very technical. It uses the notion of Godel numbering, focuses on satisfaction rather than truth, and approaches these via the process of recursion. The idea of Admissions Essay, using satisfaction treats the truth of a simple proposition such as expressed by Socrates is mortal by saying: If Socrates is friendship, a name and in College Admissions is mortal is a predicate, then Socrates is mortal expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an object x such that Socrates refers to x and is mortal is satisfied by essay on pakistan army x. For Tarski's formal language of predicate logic, he'd put this more generally as follows: If a is a name and Q is in College, a predicate, then a is Q expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an new deal essay object x such that a refers to x and Q is satisfied by x. The idea is to define the predicate is true when it is Action in College Essay, applied to the simplest (that is, the non-complex or atomic) sentences in the object language (a language, see above, which does not, itself, contain the truth-predicate is true). The predicate is true is a predicate that occurs only in the metalanguage, i.e., in friendship, the language we use to describe the object language.

At the second stage, his theory shows how the truth predicate, when it has been defined for propositions expressed by sentences of a certain degree of grammatical complexity, can be defined for propositions of the next greater degree of complexity. According to Tarski, his theory applies only to artificial languages – in particular, the classical formal languages of symbolic logic – because our natural languages are vague and unsystematic. Affirmative Action In College Admissions Essay. Other philosophers – for example, Donald Davidson – have not been as pessimistic as Tarski about analyzing truth for natural languages. Davidson has made progress in extending Tarski's work to any natural language. Doing so, he says, provides at essay the same time the central ingredient of a theory of meaning for the language. Davidson develops the original idea Frege stated in his Basic Laws of Arithmetic that the meaning of Affirmative in College Admissions, a declarative sentence is given by certain conditions under which it is friendship, true—that meaning is given by in College Admissions Essay truth conditions. As part of the larger program of research begun by Tarski and Davidson, many logicians, linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists, often collaboratively, pursue research programs trying to elucidate the truth-conditions (that is, the logics or semantics for) the propositions expressed by such complex sentences as:

Each of effects of tuberculosis, these research areas contains its own intriguing problems. All must overcome the in College, difficulties involved with ambiguity, tenses, and indexical phrases. b. Can the Semantic Theory Account for Necessary Truth? Many philosophers divide the class of propositions into two mutually exclusive and exhaustive subclasses: namely, propositions that are contingent (that is, those that are neither necessarily-true nor necessarily-false) and those that are noncontingent (that is, those that are necessarily-true or necessarily-false). On the Semantic Theory of Truth, contingent propositions are those that are true (or false) because of some specific way the world happens to be. For example all of the following propositions are contingent : The contrasting class of and lennie, propositions comprises those whose truth (or falsehood, as the case may be) is dependent, according to the Semantic Theory, not on some specific way the world happens to be, but on Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, any way the world happens to be.

Imagine the world changed however you like (provided, of course, that its description remains logically consistent [i.e., logically possible]). Even under those conditions, the Literary Elements Ilustrated in Chinua and Child Kassabova's Refugees, truth-values of the following (noncontingent) propositions will remain unchanged: However, some philosophers who accept the Semantic Theory of Truth for contingent propositions, reject it for noncontingent ones. They have argued that the Affirmative in College Admissions, truth of noncontingent propositions has a different basis from the truth of contingent ones. Of Tuberculosis. The truth of Affirmative Action Admissions, noncontingent propositions comes about, they say – not through their correctly describing the essay army, way the world is – but as a matter of the definitions of terms occurring in Affirmative in College Admissions, the sentences expressing those propositions. Noncontingent truths, on this account, are said to be true by definition , or – as it is sometimes said, in a variation of this theme – as a matter of conceptual relationships between the concepts at play within the propositions, or – yet another (kindred) way – as a matter of the meanings of the sentences expressing the propositions. It is apparent, in this competing account, that one is invoking a kind of theory of my dark side, linguistic truth. In this alternative theory, truth for a certain class of propositions, namely the class of noncontingent propositions, is to be accounted for – not in their describing the way the world is, but rather – because of certain features of our human linguistic constructs.

c. The Linguistic Theory of Necessary Truth. Does the Semantic Theory need to be supplemented in this manner? If one were to adopt the Semantic Theory of Truth, would one also need to adopt a complementary theory of truth, namely, a theory of linguistic truth (for noncontingent propositions)? Or, can the Semantic Theory of Truth be used to explain the truth-values of in College Admissions Essay, all propositions, the contingent and essay on pakistan army noncontingent alike? If so, how?

To see how one can argue that the Semantic Theory of Truth can be used to explicate the truth of noncontingent propositions, consider the Affirmative Admissions Essay, following series of propositions, the first four of essay army, which are contingent, the fifth of which is noncontingent: There are fewer than seven bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than eight bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than nine bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than ten bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than eleven bumblebees or more than ten. Each of these propositions, as we move from the second to the fifth, is slightly less specific than its predecessor. Each can be regarded as being true under a greater range of variation (or circumstances) than its predecessor. When we reach the fifth member of the series we have a proposition that is true under any and all sets of Affirmative Admissions Essay, circumstances. (Some philosophers – a few in the seventeenth century, a very great many more after the mid-twentieth century – use the idiom of possible worlds, saying that noncontingent truths are true in all possible worlds [i.e., under any logically possible circumstances].) On this view, what distinguishes noncontingent truths from contingent ones is not that their truth arises as a consequence of facts about our language or of meanings, etc.; but that their truth has to of tuberculosis, do with the scope (or number) of possible circumstances under which the Affirmative in College Admissions, proposition is true. Contingent propositions are true in some, but not all, possible circumstances (or possible worlds). Noncontingent propositions, in effects, contrast, are true in all possible circumstances or in none.

There is Admissions, no difference as to effects, the nature of truth for the two classes of propositions, only in the ranges of possibilities in Essay, which the propositions are true. An adherent of the Semantic Theory will allow that there is, to be sure, a powerful insight in the theories of linguistic truth. But, they will counter, these linguistic theories are really shedding no light on the nature of truth itself. Rather, they are calling attention to how we often go about effects of tuberculosis, ascertaining the truth of Affirmative Action Admissions, noncontingent propositions. While it is certainly possible to ascertain the truth experientially (and inductively) of the noncontingent proposition that all aunts are females – for example, one could knock on a great many doors asking if any of the residents were aunts and if so, whether they were female – it would be a needless exercise.

We need not examine the world carefully to figure out the truth-value of the proposition that all aunts are females. We might, for example, simply consult an English dictionary. How we ascertain , find out and lennie friendship , determine the truth-values of noncontingent propositions may (but need not invariably) be by Affirmative in College Essay nonexperiential means; but from that it does not follow that the effects, nature of truth of noncontingent propositions is fundamentally different from Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, that of contingent ones. On this latter view, the Semantic Theory of Truth is adequate for both contingent propositions and noncontingent ones. In neither case is the Semantic Theory of Truth intended to be a theory of how we might go about finding out what the truth-value is of any specified proposition. Indeed, one very important consequence of the Semantic Theory of Customs and Traditions, Truth is that it allows for the existence of propositions whose truth-values are in Affirmative Admissions Essay, principle unknowable to human beings. And there is a second motivation for effects, promoting the Semantic Theory of Truth for Action Essay, noncontingent propositions. How is it that mathematics is able to be used (in concert with physical theories) to explain the Essay of Judaism, nature of the in College Admissions Essay, world? On the Semantic Theory, the new deal essay, answer is that the noncontingent truths of mathematics correctly describe the world (as they would any and Affirmative Admissions Essay every possible world).

The Linguistic Theory, which makes the essay, truth of the noncontingent truths of mathematics arise out of features of language, is usually thought to have great, if not insurmountable, difficulties in grappling with this question. The Correspondence Theory and the Semantic Theory account for the truth of a proposition as arising out of Action Admissions Essay, a relationship between that proposition and features or events in the world. Coherence Theories (of which there are a number), in my dark side, contrast, account for Action in College Admissions Essay, the truth of Essay on The and Traditions, a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and other propositions. Coherence Theories are valuable because they help to reveal how we arrive at our truth claims, our knowledge. We continually work at fitting our beliefs together into Affirmative in College Admissions, a coherent system.

For example, when a drunk driver says, There are pink elephants dancing on the highway in front of us, we assess whether his assertion is true by considering what other beliefs we have already accepted as true, namely, Elephants are gray. This locale is not the george friendship, habitat of elephants. There is neither a zoo nor a circus anywhere nearby. Severely intoxicated persons have been known to experience hallucinations. But perhaps the most important reason for rejecting the drunk's claim is this: Everyone else in the area claims not to see any pink elephants. In short, the drunk's claim fails to cohere with a great many other claims that we believe and have good reason not to abandon.

We, then, reject the Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, drunk's claim as being false (and take away the car keys). Specifically, a Coherence Theory of Truth will claim that a proposition is true if and only if it coheres with ___ . For example, one Coherence Theory fills this blank with the beliefs of the my dark side, majority of persons in one's society. Another fills the blank with one's own beliefs, and yet another fills it with the beliefs of the intellectuals in one's society. The major coherence theories view coherence as requiring at least logical consistency. Rationalist metaphysicians would claim that a proposition is Affirmative, true if and only if it is consistent with all other true propositions. Some rationalist metaphysicians go a step beyond logical consistency and claim that a proposition is my dark side, true if and only if it entails (or logically implies) all other true propositions. Leibniz, Spinoza, Hegel, Bradley, Blanshard, Neurath, Hempel (late in his life), Dummett, and Putnam have advocated Coherence Theories of Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, truth.

Coherence Theories have their critics too. The proposition that bismuth has a higher melting point than tin may cohere with my beliefs but not with your beliefs. This, then, leads to the proposition being both true for me but false for you. But if true for on pakistan army, me means true and false for you means false as the Coherence Theory implies, then we have a violation of the law of non-contradiction, which plays havoc with logic. Most philosophers prefer to Affirmative Action in College, preserve the law of new deal essay, non-contradiction over any theory of truth that requires rejecting it. Consequently, if someone is making a sensible remark by saying, That is true for me but not for you, then the person must mean simply, I believe it, but you do not. Truth is not relative in the sense that something can be true for you but not for Action in College Admissions, me.

A second difficulty with Coherence Theories is Essay of Judaism, that the beliefs of any one person (or of Action Admissions, any group) are invariably self-contradictory. On The Of Judaism. A person might, for Affirmative in College Essay, example, believe both Absence makes the essay army, heart grow fonder and in College Out of sight, out of mind. But under the main interpretation of cohere, nothing can cohere with an inconsistent set. Thus most propositions, by failing to cohere, will not have truth-values. This result violates the law of the excluded middle. And there is a third objection. What does coheres with mean?

For X to cohere with Y, at the very least X must be consistent with Y. All right, then, what does consistent with mean? It would be circular to say that X is consistent with Y means it is possible for X and Y both to be true together because this response is effects, presupposing the very concept of in College Admissions, truth that it is supposed to Essay Customs and Traditions, be analyzing. Some defenders of the Coherence Theory will respond that coheres with means instead is harmonious with. Opponents, however, are pessimistic about the prospects for explicating the concept is harmonious with without at some point or other having to invoke the concept of joint truth . A fourth objection is that Coherence theories focus on the nature of Affirmative Admissions Essay, verifiability and not truth. They focus on essay army, the holistic character of verifying that a proposition is Action in College Essay, true but don't answer the principal problem, What is truth itself? a. Postmodernism: The Most Recent Coherence Theory. In recent years, one particular Coherence Theory has attracted a lot of new deal essay, attention and some considerable heat and fury. Postmodernist philosophers ask us to carefully consider how the Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, statements of the most persuasive or politically influential people become accepted as the common truths. Although everyone would agree that influential people – the effects of tuberculosis, movers and shakers – have profound effects upon the beliefs of other persons, the Affirmative in College, controversy revolves around whether the acceptance by new deal essay others of their beliefs is Action in College Admissions, wholly a matter of their personal or institutional prominence. The most radical postmodernists do not distinguish acceptance as true from on The Customs, being true ; they claim that the social negotiations among influential people construct the truth.

The truth, they argue, is not something lying outside of human collective decisions; it is Affirmative Action in College, not, in particular, a reflection of an objective reality. Or, to put it another way, to the extent that there is an objective reality it is in Chinua Poem, and Child Kassabova's Refugees, nothing more nor less than what we say it is. We human beings are, then, the ultimate arbiters of what is true. Consensus is truth. The subjective and Action Admissions the objective are rolled into one inseparable compound. These postmodernist views have received a more sympathetic reception among social scientists than among physical scientists.

Social scientists will more easily agree, for Literary Elements in Chinua Mother and Child and in, example, that the proposition that human beings have a superego is a construction of Action, (certain) politically influential psychologists, and that as a result, it is (to be regarded as) true. Effects. In contrast, physical scientists are – for the most part – rather unwilling to regard propositions in their own field as somehow merely the product of Action Admissions Essay, consensus among eminent physical scientists. They are inclined to believe that the my dark side, proposition that protons are composed of three quarks is true (or false) depending on whether (or not) it accurately describes an objective reality. They are disinclined to believe that the truth of such a proposition arises out of the pronouncements of eminent physical scientists. In short, physical scientists do not believe that prestige and social influence trump reality. A Pragmatic Theory of Action Admissions Essay, Truth holds (roughly) that a proposition is true if it is new deal essay, useful to Affirmative Admissions Essay, believe. New Deal Essay. Peirce and James were its principal advocates. Utility is the essential mark of truth. Affirmative Action Admissions. Beliefs that lead to the best payoff, that are the and lennie, best justification of Affirmative Admissions Essay, our actions, that promote success, are truths, according to the pragmatists. The problems with Pragmatic accounts of truth are counterparts to Literary Elements in Chinua Poem, Refugee Mother and Child and in Refugees, the problems seen above with Coherence Theories of Affirmative Action Admissions, truth.

First, it may be useful for new deal essay, someone to believe a proposition but also useful for Action in College Essay, someone else to disbelieve it. On The And Traditions. For example, Freud said that many people, in order to avoid despair, need to believe there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on Affirmative Admissions Essay, everyone. According to one version of the Pragmatic Theory, that proposition is true . Army. However, it may not be useful for other persons to believe that same proposition. Action. They would be crushed if they believed that there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone. Thus, by symmetry of argument, that proposition is false . In this way, the Pragmatic theory leads to a violation of the law of non-contradiction, say its critics.

Second, certain beliefs are undeniably useful, even though – on other criteria – they are judged to my dark side, be objectively false. For example, it can be useful for Action in College Essay, some persons to my dark side, believe that they live in a world surrounded by people who love or care for them. According to this criticism, the Pragmatic Theory of Truth overestimates the Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, strength of the effects, connection between truth and Action Admissions usefulness. Truth is what an ideally rational inquirer would in the long run come to believe, say some pragmatists. My Dark Side. Truth is the ideal outcome of rational inquiry. The criticism that we don't now know what happens in the long run merely shows we have a problem with knowledge, but it doesn't show that the Affirmative Admissions Essay, meaning of true doesn't now involve hindsight from the Essay on The Customs and Traditions, perspective of the Essay, future. Yet, as a theory of truth, does this reveal what true means? What all the theories of truth discussed so far have in common is the assumption that a proposition is true just in case the proposition has some property or other – correspondence with the facts, satisfaction, coherence, utility, etc. Deflationary theories deny this assumption. The principal deflationary theory is the Redundancy Theory advocated by Frege, Ramsey, and Horwich.

Frege expressed the idea this way: It is worthy of george and lennie, notice that the sentence I smell the scent of violets has the same content as the sentence It is Action in College Admissions Essay, true that I smell the scent of violets. So it seems, then, that nothing is added to the thought by george and lennie friendship my ascribing to it the Affirmative in College Admissions, property of truth. (Frege, 1918) When we assert a proposition explicitly, such as when we say I smell the scent of violets, then saying It's true that I smell the scent of violets would be redundant; it would add nothing because the two have the same meaning. Today's more minimalist advocates of the Redundancy Theory retreat from this remark about meaning and essay on pakistan say merely that the two are necessarily equivalent.

Where the concept of Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, truth really pays off is when we do not, or can not, assert a proposition explicitly, but have to deal with an indirect reference to it. Of Tuberculosis. For instance, if we wish to say, What he will say tomorrow is Action in College, true, we need the truth predicate is new deal essay, true. Admittedly the proposition is an indirect way of saying, If he says tomorrow that it will snow, then it will snow; if he says tomorrow that it will rain, then it will rain; if he says tomorrow that 7 + 5 = 12, then 7 + 5 = 12; and so forth. But the phrase is true cannot be eliminated from What he will say tomorrow is true without producing an unacceptable infinite conjunction. The truth predicate is true allows us to generalize and say things more succinctly (indeed to make those claims with only a finite number of utterances). In short, the Redundancy Theory may work for certain cases, say its critics, but it is not generalizable to all; there remain recalcitrant cases where is Affirmative in College Essay, true is new deal essay, not redundant. Advocates of the Redundancy Theory respond that their theory recognizes the essential point about needing the Action Essay, concept of on The of Judaism, truth for indirect reference. The theory says that this is all that the concept of truth is needed for, and that otherwise its use is Admissions, redundant. The Performative Theory is a deflationary theory that is not a redundancy theory. It was advocated by Strawson who believed Tarski's Semantic Theory of Truth was basically mistaken.

The Performative Theory of Truth argues that ascribing truth to a proposition is not really characterizing the proposition itself, nor is it saying something redundant. Rather, it is telling us something about the speaker's intentions . The speaker – through his or her agreeing with it, endorsing it, praising it, accepting it, or perhaps conceding it – is licensing our adoption of (the belief in) the proposition. Instead of saying, It is true that snow is white, one could substitute I embrace the claim that snow is white. The key idea is that saying of army, some proposition, P, that it is true is to say in a disguised fashion I commend P to you, or I endorse P, or something of the sort. The case may be likened somewhat to that of promising . When you promise to pay your sister five dollars, you are not making a claim about the Admissions Essay, proposition expressed by I will pay you five dollars; rather you are performing the my dark side, action of promising her something.

Similarly, according to the Performative Theory of Truth, when you say It is Admissions, true that Vancouver is Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Poem, Refugee Mother and in Kassabova's Refugees, north of Sacramento, you are performing the act of giving your listener license to believe (and to act upon Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, the belief) that Vancouver is north of Sacramento. Critics of the Performative Theory charge that it requires too radical a revision in our logic. Arguments have premises that are true or false, but we don't consider premises to be actions, says Geach. Other critics complain that, if all the ascription of is true is doing is gesturing consent, as Strawson believes, then, when we say. Please shut the door is true, we would be consenting to the door's being shut. Because that is absurd, says Huw Price, something is wrong with Strawson's Performative Theory. The Prosentential Theory of Truth suggests that the my dark side, grammatical predicate is true does not function semantically or logically as a predicate. All uses of is true are prosentential uses. When someone asserts It's true that it is snowing, the person is asking the hearer to consider the sentence It is snowing and is saying That is true where the remark That is true is taken holistically as a prosentence, in analogy to Affirmative Admissions Essay, a pronoun. A pronoun such as she is a substitute for the name of the person being referred to. Similarly, That is true is essay army, a substitute for Admissions Essay, the proposition being considered.

Likewise, for the expression It is true. According to the Prosentential Theory, all uses of true can be reduced to Literary Ilustrated in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee and Child, uses either of That is true or It is true or variants of these with other tenses. Because these latter prosentential uses of the word true cannot be eliminated from our language during analysis, the Prosentential Theory is not a redundancy theory. Critics of the Affirmative in College Admissions, theory remark that it can give no account of what is common to new deal essay, all our uses of the word true, such as those in the unanalyzed operators it-will-be-true-that and it-is-true-that and it-was-true-that. For generations, discussions of Action in College, truth have been bedeviled by the question, How could a proposition be true unless we know it to Essay on The Customs and Traditions, be true? Aristotle's famous worry was that contingent propositions about the future, such as There will be a sea battle tomorrow, couldn't be true now, for Action Admissions Essay, fear that this would deny free will to the sailors involved. Advocates of the Correspondence Theory and the Semantic Theory have argued that a proposition need not be known in order to be true. Truth, they say, arises out of Literary Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Achebe's Refugee Mother and in Refugees, a relationship between a proposition and the way the world is.

No one need know that that relationship holds, nor – for that matter – need there even be any conscious or language-using creatures for that relationship to obtain. In College Admissions Essay. In short, truth is an george and lennie objective feature of a proposition, not a subjective one. For a true proposition to be known, it must (at the Action Admissions, very least) be a justified belief. My Dark Side. Justification, unlike truth itself, requires a special relationship among propositions. For a proposition to be justified it must, at the very least, cohere with other propositions that one has adopted. On this account, coherence among propositions plays a critical role in the theory of Affirmative Admissions, knowledge. Nevertheless it plays no role in a theory of truth, according to advocates of the Correspondence and Semantic Theories of Truth. Finally, should coherence – which plays such a central role in theories of knowledge – be regarded as an objective relationship or as a subjective one? Not surprisingly, theorists have answered this latter question in divergent ways.

But the pursuit of that issue takes one beyond the theories of essay army, truth. An account of what true means does not have to tell us what is Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, true, nor tell us how we could find out what is true. Of Tuberculosis. Similarly, an account of what bachelor means should not have to tell us who is a bachelor, nor should it have to tell us how we could find out who is. Essay. However, it would be fascinating if we could discover a way to tell, for effects of tuberculosis, any proposition, whether it is true. Perhaps some machine could do this, philosophers have speculated.

For any formal language, we know in principle how to generate all the sentences of that language. Affirmative Essay. If we were to build a machine that produces one by new deal essay one all the many sentences, then eventually all those that express truths would be produced. Unfortunately, along with them, we would also generate all those that express false propositions. Action Admissions Essay. We also know how to build a machine that will generate only sentences that express truths. And Traditions. For example, we might program a computer to generate 1 + 1 is not 3, then 1 + 1 is not 4, then 1 + 1 is not 5, and so forth. However, to generate all and only those sentences that express truths is quite another matter. Leibniz (1646-1716) dreamed of achieving this goal. By mechanizing deductive reasoning he hoped to build a machine that would generate all and only truths. As he put it, How much better will it be to bring under mathematical laws human reasoning which is the most excellent and useful thing we have.

This would enable one's mind to be freed from having to think directly of things themselves, and yet everything will turn out correct. His actual achievements were disappointing in this regard, but his dream inspired many later investigators. Some progress on the general problem of capturing all and Affirmative Essay only those sentences which express true propositions can be made by Essay on The and Traditions of Judaism limiting the focus to a specific domain. For instance, perhaps we can find some procedure that will produce all and in College Admissions Essay only the truths of arithmetic, or of chemistry, or of Egyptian political history. Here, the key to my dark side, progress is to appreciate that universal and probabilistic truths capture or contain many more specific truths. If we know the universal and probabilistic laws of quantum mechanics, then (some philosophers have argued) we thereby indirectly (are in a position to) know the more specific scientific laws about chemical bonding. Action. Similarly, if we can axiomatize an Customs area of mathematics, then we indirectly have captured the infinitely many specific theorems that could be derived from those axioms, and we can hope to find a decision procedure for the truths, a procedure that will guarantee a correct answer to the question, Is that true? Significant progress was made in the early twentieth century on the problem of axiomatizing arithmetic and other areas of mathematics. Let's consider arithmetic. In the Affirmative Admissions, 1920s, David Hilbert hoped to represent the sentences of arithmetic very precisely in a formal language, then to new deal essay, generate all and only the theorems of arithmetic from uncontroversial axioms, and thereby to show that all true propositions of arithmetic can in principle be proved as theorems. This would put the concept of truth in arithmetic on a very solid basis.

The axioms would capture all and only the truths. However, Hilbert's hopes would soon be dashed. Affirmative In College Admissions. In 1931, Kurt Godel (1906-1978), in and Traditions, his First Incompleteness Theorem, proved that any classical self-consistent formal language capable of expressing arithmetic must also contain sentences of arithmetic that cannot be derived within that system, and hence that the propositions expressed by those sentences could not be proven true (or false) within that system. Thus the concept of truth transcends the Action in College, concept of proof in classical formal languages. This is a remarkable, precise insight into the nature of truth. Can is true be defined so that it can be replaced by Essay and Traditions of Judaism its definition? Unfortunately for the clarity of this question, there is Action in College Essay, no one concept of definition. A very great many linguistic devices count as definitions. These devices include providing a synonym, offering examples, pointing at objects that satisfy the term being defined, using the term in sentences, contrasting it with opposites, and contrasting it with terms with which it is often confused. (For further reading, see Definitions, Dictionaries, and Meanings.) However, modern theories about definition have not been especially recognized, let alone adopted, outside of certain academic and specialist circles. Many persons persist with the earlier, naive, view that the role of new deal essay, a definition is only to offer a synonym for the term to be defined.

These persons have in mind such examples as: 'hypostatize' means (or, is a synonym for) 'reify' . If one were to adopt this older view of definition, one might be inclined to demand of a theory of truth that it provide a definition of is true which permitted its elimination in all contexts in the language. Tarski was the first person to show clearly that there could never be such a strict definition for is true in its own language. The definition would allow for a line of reasoning that produced the Liar Paradox (recall above) and thus would lead us into self contradiction. (See the in College Admissions, discussion, in the article The Liar Paradox, of on pakistan army, Tarski's Udefinability Theorem of 1936.) Kripke has attempted to avoid this theorem by Action in College using only a partial truth-predicate so that not every sentence has a truth-value. In effect, Kripke's repair permits a definition of the army, truth-predicate within its own language but at the expense of allowing certain violations of the law of excluded middle. d. Can a Theory of Affirmative in College Admissions, Truth Avoid Paradox? The brief answer is, Not if it contains its own concept of truth. If the language is made precise by being formalized, and if it contains its own so-called global truth predicate, then Tarski has shown that the language will enable us to Essay and Traditions of Judaism, reason our way to Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, a contradiction. That result shows that we do not have a coherent concept of truth (for a language within that language).

Some of our beliefs about truth, and about related concepts that are used in the argument to the contradiction, must be rejected, even though they might seem to be intuitively acceptable. There is no reason to believe that paradox is to be avoided by of tuberculosis rejecting formal languages in Action in College, favor of natural languages. The Liar Paradox first appeared in natural languages. And there are other paradoxes of truth, such as Lob's Paradox, which follow from my dark side, principles that are acceptable in either formal or natural languages, namely the principles of modus ponens and conditional proof. The best solutions to Action in College Essay, the paradoxes use a similar methodology, the systematic approach.

That is, they try to remove vagueness and be precise about the ramifications of their solutions, usually by showing how they work in a formal language that has the Essay and Traditions, essential features of our natural language. The Liar Paradox and Lob's Paradox represent a serious challenge to understanding the logic of Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, our natural language. Effects. The principal solutions agree that – to resolve a paradox – we must go back and systematically reform or clarify some of our original beliefs. For example, the solution may require us to revise the meaning of is true. However, to be acceptable, the Action Essay, solution must be presented systematically and be backed up by an argument about the general character of our language. In short, there must be both systematic evasion and systematic explanation. Also, when it comes to developing this systematic approach, the goal of establishing a coherent basis for a consistent semantics of natural language is much more important than the goal of explaining the naive way most speakers use the terms true and not true.

The later Wittgenstein did not agree. He rejected the systematic approach and elevated the need to preserve ordinary language, and our intuitions about it, over the need to create a coherent and consistent semantical theory. e. Is The Goal of Scientific Research to Achieve Truth? Except in special cases, most scientific researchers would agree that their results are only approximately true. George Friendship. Nevertheless, to make sense of this, philosophers need adopt no special concept such as approximate truth.

Instead, it suffices to say that the researchers' goal is to achieve truth, but they achieve this goal only approximately, or only to some approximation. Other philosophers believe it's a mistake to say the Admissions Essay, researchers' goal is to achieve truth. These scientific anti-realists recommend saying that research in, for example, physics, economics, and Literary Elements in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee and Child Kassabova's Refugees meteorology, aims only for usefulness. When they aren't overtly identifying truth with usefulness, the instrumentalists Peirce, James and Schlick take this anti-realist route, as does Kuhn. They would say atomic theory isn't true or false but rather is useful for predicting outcomes of experiments and for Affirmative Action in College, explaining current data. George. Giere recommends saying science aims for the best available representation, in the same sense that maps are representations of the landscape. Maps aren't true; rather, they fit to Affirmative Action, a better or worse degree.

Similarly, scientific theories are designed to fit the world. Scientists should not aim to create true theories; they should aim to construct theories whose models are representations of the world.

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USB suspend resume issue on Admissions Essay Vybrid. I am working on Freescale Vybrid with a Chipidea based USB controller and a Sigmatel Phy or something if my memory serves me right. Essay Army. We are currently in the process of Affirmative Action, implementing suspend resume and fixing related issues. After resume the new deal essay USB PHY does not come up and the USB subsytem prints. [129.570097] usb 1-1: USB disconnect, device number 2. which comes from the core code in hub.c. I am using the Affirmative Action in College Admissions 4.1.5 kernel with some of our own patches especially with regards to suspend resume being present only in effects, our own tree which we plan to eventually push out to mainline. From what I can see, the USB USBPHYx_PWDn register which has bits related to power down, all stay in their default 1 state which denotes power down, after resume. Now this is in Essay, spite of the my dark side fact that the code seems [2] to write 0 to the register on resume. However, doing a quick check with devmem2 shows the register to have the default values of 1 denoting power down. So write seems to have no effect at in College Essay, all.

Instead of the code at lines 392[1] and 394[2] if I do. on resume, the USBPHYx_PWDn seems to have the correct value of effects, all bits as zero. However of Action Admissions Essay, course, the USB PHY does not come up. The stmp block reset in mxs_phy_hw_init seems to and lennie make the write work. There is an errata for Vybrid at [3] in VYBRID_2N02G going as e4535: USB: USB suspend and Affirmative Action in College Admissions resume flow clarifications. Not sure if I understand the explanation, however the following workaround which the my dark side errata mentions:

To place the in College Admissions USB PHY in low power suspend mode, the following sequence should be performed in an atomic operation. (interrupts should be disabled during these three steps) 1. Elements Ilustrated In Chinua Achebe's Refugee Mother And In Kassabova's Refugees. Set the PORTSC1.PHCD bit. 2. Affirmative Action In College Admissions Essay. Set all bits in USBPHY_PWD register. 3. Set the USBPHY_CTRL.CLKGATE bit. These sequence of my dark side, steps seem to be correctly followed in Admissions Essay, the suspend code [4] of of tuberculosis, Chipidea IP AFAICT. I am not that well versed with USB subsystem code having only worked on it once before for fixing non working USB client on Vybrid [5]. Have tried messing with different register bits in the USB PHY, USBPHY_CTRL and USB miscellaneous register like UTMI_SUSPENDM, HOST_FORCE_LS_SE0 and HOST_RESUME_DEBUG but with no results. Have already made sure that all the ANADIG and CCM registers are at their correct values after resume. From what I can see this seems to Affirmative Admissions Essay be USB PHY issue. MXS_PHY_ABNORMAL_IN_SUSPEND and MXS_PHY_SENDING_SOF_TOO_FAST, these two flags are not implemented in mainline.

However implementing them with old patches from mainline and the way it is done in Freescale's 3.14 kernel release does not help either. Is there an errata with the USB suspend resume issue of new deal essay, Chipidea IP core and Essay Sigmatel PHY on Vybrid? Can anyone from my dark side, Freescale or one of the hardware IC engineers know of steps to bring up the Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay USB PHY on resume? Timesys Support can you help to my dark side attend this case? I do not think the Timesys guys will be of help here. They are still with 3.13 kernel as far as I am aware and they do not have suspend resume support implemented for Vybrid. Only some engineer from inside Freescale can probably resolve this, as to Affirmative Action Essay what is and lennie, required specifically for Action in College Admissions Essay, the USB PHY to work out of resume.

Any inputs? Updates? I have looked for an example with not success. Rene Kolarik I hope you are doing well and effects of tuberculosis sorry to trouble you, but do you know if we have some validation code or snippet code that can be helpful for Sanchayan? Rene Kolarik are you able to help here? Or maybe Richard Stulens will have some hint.

The problem that you are facing is likely that the controller sends HS SOF before the device has returned to HS mode after a resume. This will lead to a disconnect detection in the PHY. Please try setting bit 18 in the USBPHYx_IPn register. This will add delay so the SOF will not be sent before the device has HS termination enabled. This will be in Affirmative in College Essay, the next revision of the RM. Also set bit 17.

This corrects an issue in the PHY. George. When this bit is not set, some devices may not wake up. I have already tried setting those two bits. We already take care of these bits during initialisation, see [1] and [2]. While they are not set up in Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, the resume code path [3], I have already tried setting them when the PHY resume code is called but that does not help. We have known about these bits for effects of tuberculosis, quite a while and if my memory serves me right, my colleague added the patch for introducing it for Vybrid. Can you then try to disable the HS disconnect detector in the PHY (HW_USBPHY_CTRL.ENHOSTDISCONDETECT) when the Affirmative Action Essay host port is essay army, suspended, and re-enabled after resume. In College. This was the workaround before the hardware assist was added. Let me know if this solves the my dark side problem. Have already tried that as well. But just to be sure I tried it again.

That does not work either. I removed the phy_connect and Affirmative in College Admissions disconnect functions which set/unset that bit here [1] and friendship have the IP bits set in the resume path. I re-read your original post and noticed I missed the part saying the PWD bits remain set after resume. Since PWD and clock gate were set when entering suspend, they must be cleared prior to resume and in reverse order (CLKGATE before PWD)). Also check if the USB PLL is running. This provides the PHY clock.

All of this is also required for i.MX6 so I expect it to be in the code somewhere. I'm not a Linux engineer so I do not know where to look. As a test, you can suspend without putting the PHY in low-power mode and see if resume works properly. I'll verify this clearing of PWD and CLKGATE with our i.MX6 SW team. The USB PHY is Affirmative Admissions, identical to i.MX6. I'll verify this clearing of PWD and CLKGATE with our i.MX6 SW team. The USB PHY is identical to i.MX6.

Yes, it is. And since we also work on iMX6 I have looked into 3.14 Freescale vendor kernel for iMX6. The USB PHY code there implements two flags below. I also tried implementing them by army, using the 3.14 kernel and Peter Chen's old patches from here [1] as a reference because these are not implemented in 4.x kernels and they carry out specific operations in case they are set. Essay. I was hoping that might work but I did not see any changes. I have made sure all ANADIG and Literary in Chinua Mother Kassabova's Refugees CCM registers are at their correct values by manually noting each reigster's value before suspend and after resume. Affirmative Action Admissions Essay. The PLL3 and PLL7 registers related to USB show that the USB clocks are enabled and the PLL is locked. The code also does it correctly so I do not expect them to be wrong and since I cross reference them with my manual checks as well. Also have a quick look here [2]. One can see that the clock gate is being cleared prior to setting the USBPHY_PWD to and lennie zero.

The surprising thing and which you noted recently from my first post is that the Action Admissions Essay USBPHY_PWD registers stay at all 1's implying PWD even when the clockgate is effects, removed and 0 has been written to that register. Affirmative Action In College Admissions Essay. So basically writing a 0 to the PWD register somehow seems to my dark side have not effect at all. Affirmative In College Admissions. A software reset seems to be the only way to effects of tuberculosis get it to have 0's in Affirmative, that register however not that it solves the issue. I can also add that the my dark side USB controller peripheral seems to be fine or atleast it seems so. For example, if a manual restart is issued to the Chipidea controller (something which we do when we do on automatic gadget or host detection) the CI peripheral controller detects the Affirmative Action device after having come out of resume, but one gets USB descriptor read errors due to the PHY being down and thus resulting in the controller being unable to communicate with the USB device in Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee and Child Refugees, question. I discussed with our SW engineer that does the Linux USB implementation for i.MX6. He did not see an obvious reason for Action, the problem. New Deal Essay. The most likely reason for PWD not to go to 0 is that the clock is in College Admissions, still gated.

I assume you did check, but just be sure can you check if CLKGATE does effectively transition to 0 by reading it back? Also check if the module clock (CCM_CCGR1[CG20] and/or CCM_CCGR7[CG116]) is running. It may have been turned off when suspend mode was entered. Yes, both the Literary Elements Ilustrated Poem, and in Kassabova's Refugees module clock bits show it is running. Both occupy the in College Essay 9th and 8th bit positions in Essay on The, the CCM_CCGRn registers and as per the above register values, they are both on Action in College Admissions Essay after resume. And also the clock gate is removed, because if it didn't work properly, the immediate write of 0 to PWD after removing the clock gate would fail and the SoC never resumes requiring a power reset. Any more inputs? Sorry for the delay. The past few weeks a.

I'm pretty much out of ideas. On Pakistan Army. I see no reason why this would not work on Affirmative Action Admissions Vybrid. Can you dump the my dark side PHY registers? I'll check if everything is the way I expect it to be. Can you capture the Dm and Dp bus state when the resume occurs? (use a 1 GHz or better scope when possible) Aslo include VBUS_DETECT if possible. Maybe this will tell us some more about the issue. Sorry for the delay in reply, had got tied up with another problem on a different platform. Sure I will dump the PHY registers and share them here.

Sadly we only have a 200 MHz capable scope. Use the 200 MHz for Affirmative in College, now. It will not show much detail of the HS signal, but it may be good enough to see what happens upon resume. Here are the PHY locations after resume, The USBPHY1_* registers have the new deal essay same value. Essay. Notice that after resume, the PWD registers indicate power down condition.

I will get back to you with the effects scope readouts some time later. It seems Soft Reset was set but not cleared, I think this will keep the PHY in RESET condition. Yes that's right. However I do not know why it is so! Even if I add code to manually clear the bit on Action Admissions Essay resume it does not work. On doing so, the USBPHYx_CTRL now has 0x20000040, however PHY is still down even though the PHYx_PWD register now shows all 0! And I have tried changing the order of new deal essay, operations, clear clkgate first and then sftrst bit and Affirmative Action Admissions Essay vice versa, no results. I don't think the PHY should be reset for Customs and Traditions of Judaism, suspend.

Try to find where the reset bis is set when entering suspend and remove the reset. The Phy looks to respond correctly after you cleared the RESET. It may be out of sync with the controller because it was reset. SFTRST is Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, only set and cleared once during boot up. Nothing else sets this bit in of Judaism, the code in any of the other code paths except during initialisation at power on. The reset bit must have been set by some code, maybe incidentally.

The PHY is responding correctly after you cleared the reset, but since the reset was set, the PHY's configuration may be out of sync with the Action in College controller and in the wrong state for a resume. I think we are now at the point where help from Timesys Support is more appropriate since this is and lennie, now Linux driver support. Thanks for the ping. Affirmative Admissions Essay. Sanchayan Maity - as you note at the beginning of this thread, our 3.13 kernel doesn't implement this, and Elements Ilustrated Achebe's Poem, Refugee and Child and in Kassabova's Refugees you're working on a much more recent release. Given the amount of Admissions Essay, investigation already undertaken by george, you and Freescale engineers, perhaps we can discuss this outside the Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay forum to new deal essay determine a cooperative effort to further investigate. In the interim, I have passed this to our Vybrid engineers for review. At this time, I do not. As noted, this is Action, not present in our 3.0, or 3.13 kernel support; as the MX6 USB team has reviewed this an not seen an issue, perhaps the Essay on The Freescale Vybrid team may have some insight?

The Vybrid team just handed it off to Affirmative in College Admissions Timesys Support because the army RESET bit in the PHY was set when the system resumed from suspend. I checked previously with the FSL MX6 Linux team and they confirmed this RESET is Affirmative Essay, not being set in the i.MX6 USB driver. So my conclusion is that the Vybrid USB driver sets the Customs PHY reset bit when it should not be set. Action. Possibly the addition of the on The and Traditions of Judaism suspend/resume functionality triggers this in some way. We implemented the suspend resume support on Affirmative in College Essay Vybrid and while we have had to fix quite a few drivers for suspend resume to work, USB was not one of essay on pakistan army, them. Action In College Admissions Essay. I have been working on USB suspend resume issue for a while now but no modifications have been made to the USB code in any way for suspend resume.

Coming back to the main question, which I will raise once again. Above is the code which gets executed in effects of tuberculosis, suspend path of phy-mxs-usb.c which is the in College Essay USB PHY driver for all iMXs and Vybrid. The clock is enabled, clock gating is new deal essay, removed and 0 is written to USBPHY_PWD register. However if I read the value of USBPHY_PWD after this, it has 1's in the locations that matter which indicate power down. If I check all clocks and Affirmative in College PLL's they seem to be fine. The SFTRST bit is only ever set and friendship then cleared during initialisation indirectly here with a call to stmp_reset_block. Nothing else sets SFTRST which can be checked as simply as by searching for it in the driver. Affirmative Action Admissions. While it is defined, it is not referenced anywhere.

While I am already looking at our suspend resume implementation and comparing it with iMX6 but the above is my primary question. Is there something which can make SFTRST held and asserted even though it is not being asserted anywhere in the driver itself? And no the suspend resume code does not set it atleast not directly. If some particular setting or sequence of Elements in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee and Child Kassabova's Refugees, operations do this indirectly, then I am not aware, USB is not touched at all in core suspend resume PM code. Why even when 0 is being written to PWD register does it have no effect at Affirmative, all? If this is due to SFTRST, then manually clearing it is not suppose to work? I am not sure this is the right forum to bring this up, or if it is Literary Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Poem, Mother and Child and in Kassabova's, even fully related but we seem to have the same issue, was wondering if there ever was a resolution to this? I don't have the Affirmative Action Admissions Essay same USB chip I believe, but seem to my dark side have the same symptom. I am not sure if I have picked up this problem by adding a USB interface driver too many or if it was there from the start.

But I can get the USB backup and running after resume by rebinding it. echo -n ci_hdrc.0 unbind. echo -n ci_hdrc.0 bind. This is what suspend looks like. [158534.857346] usb 1-1: USB disconnect, device number 2. [158536.734315] usb 2-1: USB disconnect, device number 2. [158536.891107] option1 ttyUSB0: GSM modem (1-port) converter now disconnected from ttyUSB0. [158537.079254] option1 ttyUSB1: GSM modem (1-port) converter now disconnected from ttyUSB1. [158537.252492] option1 ttyUSB2: GSM modem (1-port) converter now disconnected from ttyUSB2. [158537.446913] option1 ttyUSB3: GSM modem (1-port) converter now disconnected from ttyUSB3. And here is the rebind (you can see the disconnect for Affirmative, unbind)

[160674.068857] usb usb1: USB disconnect, device number 1. [160674.082197] ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.0: USB bus 1 deregistered. [160682.085904] ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1. [160682.111159] ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.0: USB 2.0 started, EHCI 1.00. [160682.123253] hub 1-0:1.0: USB hub found. [160682.471362] usb 1-1: new high-speed USB device number 2 using ci_hdrc. [160682.771626] usb 1-1: reset high-speed USB device number 2 using ci_hdrc. [160700.260155] usb usb2: USB disconnect, device number 1. [160700.273563] ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.1: USB bus 2 deregistered. [160703.128948] ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.1: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 2.

[160703.151672] ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.1: USB 2.0 started, EHCI 1.00. [160703.167571] hub 2-0:1.0: USB hub found. [160703.522047] usb 2-1: new high-speed USB device number 2 using ci_hdrc. [160703.780430] usb 2-1: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB0. [160703.903555] usb 2-1: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB1. [160704.092937] usb 2-1: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB2. [160704.369570] usb 2-1: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB3. Not sure if that worked in Essay and Traditions of Judaism, the case above as well?

I'm not a Linux engineer, but assuming that unbind and bind are unloading and loading the device driver, then that is not suspend/resume. With suspend/resume, the driver remains loaded and Affirmative Action both the host and the peripheral keep their configuration during suspend. There is just no communication during suspend, and the device can go in to low-power retention mode if so desired. Yes, the unbind/bind was done after the resume from sleep. To get it all working again, as the driver won't resume properly.

It has now been verified that we have and Literary in Chinua Poem, Mother and in Kassabova's see the same issue with the flags from the USB PHY. I was merely wondering if unbind/bind after a stuck resume would bring the Affirmative Action Admissions USB back online for my dark side, Sanchayan as well. As it might suggest that the problem might be outside the driver or some other driver dipping its feet where it shouldn't. Just to make sure, in USB terms suspend means no activity on the bus and peripheral draws no more thna 5 mA on VBUS. I sometimes see system suspend (System low power retention mode) being associated with USB suspend, but these are 2 different things. USB can be suspended with the system fully operational (ex as host, suspend bus to put a peripheral into low-power mode to reduce current draw). In this case, the host can resume the in College Admissions bus when it needs the peripheral, or the peripheral can request the host to Essay on The resume the bus when it needs to Admissions Essay be serviced. Here we are talking about Linux suspend/resume.

During this phase it will put the USB Phy to Essay on The Customs of Judaism low power mode, once Linux resumes, the USB does not restore its working state. Thank you very much for Affirmative Admissions Essay, sharing your findings here. I can confirm that the unbinding and binding does work and can serve as a possible workaround for Essay Customs and Traditions of Judaism, the moment. I must admit that I have not looked into the suspend resume issue for in College, quite a while now but it still remains one the primary open issues with respect to george suspend resume on Vybrid for us. Will start looking into it again perhaps. Hi, have you seen ERR004535 USB: USB suspend and resume flow clarifications.

This seems to describe the issue you have been having. I have also had issues with the PHY resume from suspend on the i.mx28. My current work around being not to suspend the PHY. Photo Advisory -- US Secretary of Transportation, Anthony Foxx, Meets With NXP CEO Rick Clemmer at CES 2016. NXP Semiconductors Announces Conference Call to Review Full-Year and Fourth Quarter 2015 Financial Results. The smart home of the future is on our doorstep. NXP Smarter World Tour Begins Its European Journey.

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“12 Years A Slave”: On Humane Suffering. NOVEMBER 9, 2013. THERE IS A SCENE in Steve McQueen’s film 12 Years a Slave that, as far as I can tell, has become the cornerstone of many viewers’ experiences with and critics’ understanding of the film. Solomon Northup (Chiwetel Ejiofor, unforgettably), a freeborn black man abducted and sold into the eponymous term of bondage, is left to dangle after a botched hanging by a white journeyman carpenter (Paul Dano) and two of his white cronies. Action In College Essay? The plantation’s overseer arrives in time to save Northup from death, though he leaves him hanging just low enough not to fully asphyxiate so long as he stays balanced on the tips of his toes, which keep slipping in the mud. The camera lingers on this scene for an excruciatingly long time — Northup will hang here from morning to nightfall — and as Northup’s struggle for life takes place in essay on pakistan army, the middle foreground, the Affirmative Action Admissions Essay world around him gradually comes to Literary Elements Ilustrated in Chinua, life; slaves emerge from their nearby shacks and go about picking weeds or flowers with their heads down and eyes averted, near enough to Affirmative in College Essay, Northup to hear his rasping half-breath, the groaning of the hemp rope, the slopping of his toes in the mud. The tableau of Northup’s near-hanging torture is a masterpiece of staging, and it calls to mind at effects of tuberculosis, once Bruegel the Elder’s painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus and the lynching postcards of the in College Essay post-reconstruction South. Effects Of Tuberculosis? But unlike Breughel’s painting, in which the boy’s deadly fall, like most tragedy, takes place virtually unnoticed while the world goes on around it, and unlike the postcards which are more uncanny than horrifying, McQueen puts Northup’s human suffering front and center. The extraordinary set piece of Northup’s ordeal — well, one of his many ordeals — calls to mind an even longer take in McQueen’s 2008 feature debut Hunger in which IRA martyr-to-be Bobby Sands (Michael Fassbender) conducts a dialogue on Affirmative in College Admissions Essay politics and morality with a republican priest. The scene in 12 Years is friendship, also a moral colloquy of sorts, a wordless examination of human slavery and cruelty between the Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay hanging man, his fellow slaves, the slave owners, the poor whites, and the audience.

It evokes a heady mixture of and lennie fear, revulsion, guilt, and in College Admissions Essay, helplessness in the viewer, not just as a result of the pathetic metonymy of Northup’s toes struggling for purchase in the mud, but also because the viewer is, over time, made to feel complicit in looking and not acting. The visceral desire to cut Northup down — to do something, anything — is powerful, and this feeling of profound injustice is countermanded by the quotidian constellation of blacks and army, whites going about their work, by the still and steady camera, and by the implication that if you were there, then, you would have looked on, too. The scene at once screams for and forestalls moral indictment of anyone beside the crudely drawn hangmen, and interestingly it is one of the few instances of textual infidelity in Affirmative Action Admissions, the film. (In Northup’s 1853 narrative, adapted for the screen by McQueen and Essay Customs, screenwriter John Ridley, the buildup and much of the dialogue is Action in College Admissions, indeed the same, though the result is that he is left standing, not hanging, all day with his legs and new deal essay, arms bound.) Few scenes in Affirmative Action Essay, the history of cinema do more to conjure the reality of slavery’s toll not just on the backs of the enslaved, but on the minds and identities (what might have been called the souls) of blacks, slave and free, and to a different but non-negligible extent, the whites around them. 12 Years A Slave opens with an almost dreamy sequence of Northup years into his slavery, shots which will be repeated later in the film: Northup cutting sugar cane, Northup trying and failing to write with a pen carved from a cane shoot and ink made from blackberries, and a troubling scene of Northup and Literary Elements Achebe's Mother Refugees, a slave woman sleeping side-by-side on a cabin floor covered with other slaves. Northup rolls over and finds her face next to his, the whites of in College Admissions Essay her eyes blazing in new deal essay, the dark, and what ensues is an abortive sexual encounter characterized by groping and shifting that is more animal that human — more elemental than a child’s “first time” — and which ends with what seems to be more a failure of Action in College Essay communication, of connection, than of essay blood flow and animal lust. Thus, it appears that McQueen is setting up an opposition that is prominent in Northup’s autobiography — as well as in other early American slave narratives, like Narrative of the Life of in College Admissions Essay Frederick Douglass and The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano — one which associates language (and literacy in particular) with power, life, freedom, and identity, and its loss with bondage, both actual and metaphysical. In his adaptation, however, McQueen chooses to largely forgo this traditional trope, opting instead for his own potent vocabulary of new deal essay formal tension and the human body’s frank demand for recognition. Indeed, the movie’s few clunky or didactic bits come in dialogue. One particularly flat-footed scene, for Affirmative in College Essay, instance, has a vaguely Mennonite-ish and new deal essay, Canadian Brad Pitt (one of the film’s producers) engaging the brutal planter and slave owner Edwin Epps (Michael Fassbender) in a Socratic dialogue about liberty and equality.

We know his words to Admissions Essay, be true, if not truisms, but they ring hollow all the way in the movie’s third act, especially when compared to the faces that fill McQueen’s frames. (Here I am tempted to say that no filmmaker since Bergman has made such evocative and painterly use of the Ilustrated Achebe's and in Kassabova's human face; for Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, this reason, at the very least, this is a film to see on the big screen.) A few or a few thousand words on the universality of effects of tuberculosis values, the equality of men, or the in College Essay role birth-luck plays in the difference between slave and master can at best play handmaiden to the expressive power of McQueen’s faces: the slave Patsy’s (Lupita Nyong’o in new deal essay, a laudable debut) beautiful visage scarred by the violent caprices of her master’s wife as she begs Northup to kill her (in horrifyingly elaborate detail); an Action in College older female slave, silent for some time before leading a group of new deal essay slaves in a funeral song hardly differentiable from a field song; and especially a narrative non sequitur, low-angle cutaway of Northup’s face, a monument to something ineffable, tremendous, beyond the Affirmative in College Essay grasp of new deal essay art and imagination. Ejiofor’s yellowed eyes traverse the farther distance behind the camera before meeting the gaze of the audience for a disconcerting moment and Affirmative Action in College Admissions, then moving on, back into a landscape that, for us, is essentially unimaginable. The force of Northup’s stare, as well as those of his fellow slaves, recalls McQueen’s short film Bear (1993), which seemed to make visible the dangerous erotic power of the male gaze, and to a lesser extent 2002’s Western Deep (who can forget the face of the miner caught in new deal essay, McQueen’s spotlight?) and Hunger (Davey Gillen at the center of the raucous mass looking like Christ painted by Velasquez or Mantegna). In all of these films, the director explores the Affirmative Action in College ambivalent power of the looking and looked upon human in confinement. Neither accusatory nor plaintive nor any one thing, Ejiofor’s silence in this scene, reflected and reverberated by McQueen’s many sunset cutaways of cypress treetops and hanging Spanish moss (themselves reminiscent of his use of new deal essay claustrophobically dark and silent shots in Western Deep ), forces the audience to acknowledge the brute fact of Northup’s abused humanity, a humanity that Ejiofor’s eyes, when they meet ours, remind us that we all share alike. McQueen’s non-narrative shots of faces and landscape take the audience past the in College Admissions point in moral and Elements in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee Refugees, historical investigation where words fail, to a new understanding to Action Admissions, the early scene of failed love and communication, to the place where there are no answers only humans. “I spoke aloud,” wrote Northup upon finding himself first in chains, “but the sound of my voice startled me.” Since Hunger , McQueen has, perhaps paradoxically, been accused of both an of tuberculosis audience-directed sadism and inappropriately aestheticizing the suffering of his subjects.

These are particularly interesting criticisms to lodge against Affirmative Admissions, his two most painful works — Hunger and 12 Years — since these films are pretty scrupulously based on actual events (or, more precisely, focused on the human beings caught up in those events). Slate critic Dana Stevens, for example, labels McQueen’s aesthetic as “miserabilist” and speculates that the aim of his feature oeuvre might be to “see how much human suffering and moral degradation [the audience] can take.” Such a statement might make sense in a review of Lars von Trier’s Antichrist or a critique of Michael Haneke’s professed paternalistic sadism, but in the case of on pakistan army Hunger the charge of Action in College Essay aestheticization misses both the importance of Christian iconography for that film as well as the juxtaposition of that iconography to the starkly unaestheticized contests of brutality between the inmates and their jailers. In this case of my dark side McQueen’s adaptation of Affirmative Action Essay Northup’s harrowing narrative, the charge again begs a number of moral, historical, and and lennie, aesthetic questions. Affirmative Action In College Admissions Essay? To recite the obvious answers to these questions, however, is to miss an important feature of effects 12 Years in Action in College Admissions Essay, particular and the director’s oeuvre more generally. McQueen is essentially a humane filmmaker. Yes, McQueen depicts the ravages of self-starvation in Hunger and hangings and tortures in 12 Years — and essay on pakistan, we are “made” to watch the gashes bloom on Patsy’s back as Northup is forced to whip her — but even McQueen’s most brutal sequences are never principally about pain or degradation. There can be no question that the violence in this beautiful movie is incredibly ugly, but it is equally clear that the filmmaker derives no satisfaction from gore. Nor are the Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay rare embellishments of pain and suffering — most notably, and in all fairness to the “miserablist” critics, in Northup’s hanging scene — gratuitous. Literary Elements Ilustrated In Chinua Poem, Refugee Mother And Child And In? Even in his depictions of thoughtless brutality and animal debasement, the stress of the scene is on the humanity common to both slave and master, jailed and jailer. McQueen confronts his audience by demanding that we recognize what Immanuel Kant called the “humanity in the person” in situations in which his characters, due to Admissions, the historical circumstances in which they find themselves, do not or cannot. Army? This is, of course, the cruel irony and moral dilemma of the hanging scene, and it is what distinguishes McQueen’s film from another recent slave piece, Quentin Tarantino’s Django Unchained , in which white and black bodies alike serve as mere vehicles for violence.

That McQueen’s ambivalent evocation of the humanity of both jailer and jailed in Hunger does not exactly translate to a nuanced depiction of the strange and consuming bonds between slave and in College Admissions Essay, master is perhaps a sad but unavoidable fact. His film is largely true to Northup’s narrative, after all, and the situation of a Maze Prison jailer and antebellum slaveholder are not, we would like to imagine, morally equivalent (though the absurd contingency of the power differential is still there in essay on pakistan army, both cases). Still, one cannot help but wish that the Action characters around Northup were more finely drawn — though Sara Paulson as Mistress Epps does a magnificent job embodying the my dark side way petty emotions ferment into evil in those who occupy the intermediate rungs of power. Ditto Dano’s Tibeats. Perhaps McQueen and Ridley wished to stay true to the narrative flattening of the Admissions Essay world presented in Northup’s book, or perhaps, to paraphrase T.S. Eliot, there is only so much reality today’s moviegoer can take. McQueen’s humane commitment is a through-line from his less narrative gallery films to of Judaism, his full-length feature releases.

Even his disorienting short works that feature humans only briefly or by reference — like 2009’s Giardini and Static — as well as his more explicitly human films — like Western Deep , Caribs’ Leap (2002), Exodus (1997), and Five Easy Pieces (1995) — speak to the universal desire for Action in College, the expression of self and assertion of dignity, as well as the ways the world continually subverts, degrades, and perverts those urges. What results from this dialectic is a difficult story of entanglement between identity, history, and the demands of morality. McQueen’s dialectic is perhaps most evident in the short works Western Deep and on pakistan army, Caribs’ Leap , pieces which are typically displayed simultaneously on loops and, of course, side-by-side. Western Deep , a 24 minute film of black miners toiling in gold mines miles beneath the surface of South Africa and engaging in absurd group exercises and medical tests, is projected beside Carib’s Leap which depicts, inter alia , a figure falling through the Admissions Essay air — neither jumping nor hitting ground, forever tumbling through the light — filmed at the site where, in 1652, hundreds of ethnic Caribs chose to leap to their deaths rather than surrender to the colonial French Army. The paring of these works is emblematic of McQueen’s oeuvre in effects, that it is undeniably gorgeous, but also terrible in the demands of indeterminate content and incredible force that it makes on the viewer. Ultimately, however, McQueen is not a didactic artist.

He seeks to provoke — there can be no question of that — but he does not preach. In his feature films, and in Action Essay, many of his short works, McQueen has used portrayals of humanity in extremis to Literary in Chinua and in Refugees, ask uncomfortable, ambivalent questions. Whether depicting the chthonic transformation of men in the world’s deepest mine or the descent into the putatively bestial and subhuman in Hunger and Affirmative in College, 12 Years , humanity in McQueen’s films shines through even in — or especially in — the most inhuman of contexts, when autonomy is at its lowest ebb, and confinement, both literal and my dark side, figurative, is the Action Admissions Essay name of the landscape. In this sense, he reminds me of another great ambivalent humanist, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, who once wrote to Tolstoy’s friend Nilkolay Strachov of my dark side his search for human truths in the extremes. It is hard not to understand Dostoyevsky’s letter to Strachov as an implicit jab at Affirmative Action Admissions, Tolstoy’s relatively bourgeois approach to the subject matter of effects “human experience,” and it is similarly difficult not to view past films dealing with slavery less generously in light of McQueen’s achievement. Affirmative Action Essay? Like Dostoyevsky, McQueen seeks insight, if not redemption, at the limits of experience and morality, under the conviction that, to effects of tuberculosis, paraphrase the Russian (if I’m allowed another paraphrase), the stars shine brightest in the darkest night. One comes away from reading 12 Years a Slave , which ends with Northup “restored to happiness and liberty,” filled with admiration for its author. It seems simply incredible that any man could endure even one year a slave, much less that the human mind could pass through such an ordeal and emerge not only intact but capable of generous, lucid, and occasionally artful prose. Though McQueen’s adaptation ends at the same place the Action in College Essay book does — with Northup reunited with his family in New York — the film strikes a decidedly different note. When Ejiofor’s Northup, now dressed in a freeman’s clothes as he had been before his ordeal, walks through the door of his home and is greeted by effects, his family dressed in their Sunday best, he wears the face of Job when presented with his new, replacement family.

The sensation is no longer one of in College Essay amazement that a man’s mind could survive such an ordeal intact, but the friendship hard realization that it cannot. The look on Northup’s face at Action in College Admissions Essay, the end of the film is one I recognized from a time when I was doing civil rights work in the Deep South, when I met a man by the coffee maker who was unfamiliar with the workings of the machine’s digital display because the george and lennie day before he had been released from prison after serving more than 20 years for a crime he did not commit. I do not want to detract from in College Admissions Essay, a wonderful period film by reminding the of tuberculosis reader that the phenomenon, writ broadly, is not fully relegated to history, but the point should be made. Action In College? (See, for example, these profiles of recent exonerees in essay army, Louisiana, men who spent decades in prison for crimes they did not commit, not far from where Northup was enslaved a century and Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, a half earlier.) The point is one, I think, that Solomon Northup, who dedicated the remainder of his free life to effects, the causes of freedom, equality, and justice, would approve of, if not insist upon.

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Do the Lemba and the Falasha have Jewish DNA? Genetics and Linguistics in Affirmative Action in College, Sub-Saharan Africa Presented at SAfA 2004. From high antiquity to recent history6, one of the more bizarre episodes in the attempt to link genetics and linguistics is the case of the Lemba in Southern Africa7 (Hendrickx 1991; Spurdle Jenkins 1996; Thomas et al. 2000). If you believe the many websites, the Lemba are a black Southern African Bantu speaking group who have Jewish Ancestry. They purportedly observe customs such as not eating pork, male circumcision, and keeping one day a week holy. According to their oral history, they came to Africa from “Sena in the north by boat”. The original group, which is said to have been almost entirely male, made its way to the coasts of Eastern Africa. If the Lemba do indeed have Jewish ancestry then one might expect to find a similarity between the Y chromosomes of Lemba men and my dark side, those of Jewish men living in other parts of the world. Needless, to say, this has stimulated the ‘lost tribes of Israel’ lobby.

Tudor Parfitt, a lecturer in Jewish Studies has made a miniature media career through a book and Affirmative in College Admissions, television programme, Journey to the Vanished City: Search for a Lost Tribe of Israel (Parfitt 1997). In this bold essay into the unknown the brave hero ventures into my dark side South Africa and lo and behold uncovers the Lemba. Affirmative Action! This was linked to Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Poem, Mother and Child and in Kassabova's, a study that compared the Y chromosomes of around 136 Lemba to in College, those of Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews, Yemeni and non-Lemba Bantu speakers (Thomas et al. 2000). My Dark Side! Researchers found evidence of Semitic origin in the Lemba, although it was not clear whether this origin was Jewish or Arab, or a mixture of both.

The study also found that the Lemba carry the Cohen modal haplotype (CMH) at a frequency similar to that found in Jewish populations. The CMH has been suggested as a signature for the ancient Hebrew population. Action In College! Non-Lemba Bantu speakers in the study did not carry the CMH. The researchers concluded that the Literary Elements Ilustrated Refugee Mother and Child and in Kassabova's Refugees Lemba most likely have a mixture of Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, Jewish, Arab and Bantu origins, although the CMH present in Lemba men could have an of tuberculosis exclusively Jewish origin. It is Action in College Admissions, therefore claimed that the genetic evidence is therefore consistent with the Lemba oral tradition of a Jewish origin.

Wilson Goldstein (2000) even go so far as to refer to them as a ‘Bantu-Semitic Hybrid Population’. The whole story has more than a whiff of Wilbur Smith. These ‘traditions’ are almost entirely spurious and do not date from the earliest records of the Lemba, but are an example of my dark side, reinvention spurred by in College Admissions the interests of outsiders. The Lemba only now claim to new deal essay, be of Jewish origin because they have told this is the Admissions case, just as they now wear skull-caps and shawls in conformity with this spurious tradition. It seems very likely that even the claim that there is new deal essay, ‘Semitic’ DNA would be difficult to support and the likelihood that the frequency of CMH is really similar to in College Admissions Essay, modern day Jewish populations unlikely in the extreme. Bizarrely, the Lemba are now also claiming to have built Great Zimbabwe.

Assuming the genetics result reflect anything at new deal essay, all, it is probably intermarriage with Arab traders in Affirmative Action in College Admissions, the past few centuries. In Chinua Poem, Refugee And Child Kassabova's Refugees! It is noticeable that the Lemba have no language of their own and indeed no linguistic trace remains of Action in College, their supposed Jewish forbears. Nonetheless, as quoted in Thomas et al. (2000), the Lemba are now writing books about themselves, recounting traditions of apparent Jewish origin. Search websites on Bantu genetics and this is the main topic they want to my dark side, discuss; Judaic websites have begun to elaborate an entire mythology of the lost Jewish populations of sub-Saharan Africa8. Ruwitah (1997) has indeed pointed to this reinvention but to no good effect. By some irony, a series of in College, studies of the Falasha, the my dark side ‘Black Jews’ of Ethiopia, who have always claimed to be Orthodox Jews and who were certainly practising Jewish religion when first encountered by outsiders, show no Jewish genetic traits at all (Lucotte Smets 1999). 6 It is hard not to be reminded of Affirmative in College, Karl Marx’ observation “Hegel remarks somewhere that all great, world-historical facts and Achebe's Poem, Refugees, personages occur, so to speak, twice. He has forgotten to add: the first time as tragedy, the second as farce.” Opening sentences of ‘The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon’.

The Lemba Story: A Re-Invention? “The whole story has more than a whiff of Wilbur Smith. These ‘traditions’ are almost entirely spurious and do not date from the earliest records of the Lemba, but are an example of reinvention spurred by Affirmative Action in College Admissions the interests of outsiders. The Lemba only now claim to be of Jewish origin because they have told this is the of tuberculosis case, just as they now wear skull-caps and shawls in conformity with this spurious tradition. It seems very likely that even the claim that there is ‘Semitic’ DNA would be difficult to support and the likelihood that the frequency of CMH is really similar to modern day Jewish populations unlikely in Essay, the extreme.” Genetics and Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa Presented at SAFA 2004, p. 10. the lemba do have jew dna, and i dont think they jjust claim to be jew for the fantasy of Literary Ilustrated in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee Mother and Child and in, it. but the Affirmative in College Essay falasha dnt have jew dna. To be sure the Cohen Modal Haplotype found among the Lemba would prima facie show evidence of Jewish origins that would presumably link them to new deal essay, genotypes found among all worldwide Jewish communities. It is Action Admissions Essay, true if we give credence to the scientific literature that such genetic linkages are completely absent among the Falasha Beta Israel. However, it should be noted that the matrilineal DNA among the Ashekenazi show the L2a1 haplotype originating in Africa that begs the question of on pakistan army, possible Bantu origins! The latest studies by Soodyall in 2013 show that they are not likely to Affirmative in College Essay, be Jewish at all, but Arabic. The Cohen modal haplotype was extended to 12 instead of on The Customs and Traditions of Judaism, 6 markers, and in College Admissions Essay, was found only in jews and not at all in the Lemba.

The matrilineal DNA of the effects Ashkenazi is largely Italian – The paternal ancestry of Ashkenazim is entirely Jewish from the Middle east whereas only a portion of the Lembas are Middle Eastern I suggest you read the latest population studies instead of misquoting. @Davis, Lemba oral history is not a re-invention. This is one of the many stories of the many faces of the Affirmative Action in College Jewish people. The biggest problem in the west is their failure to liberate themselves of Victorian fantasy that being Jewish is of tuberculosis, being white of Polish or Russian or British or French origin. Being Jewish by matching with Ashkenazim is Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, simply one of the worst attempts of European Jews of declaring everyone un-Jewish. Elements In Chinua Achebe's Refugee And In Kassabova's Refugees! Science has become a tool in Action in College Admissions, the hands of people of the my dark side lie. Dear Mr. Wuriga, Thank you for Action in College Admissions visiting the of tuberculosis AIH blog and your response. Before I can address I would term as your misdiagnosis of “The biggest problem in the west” let me refer you to this article to in College, further inform your bias.

One thing we can agree upon to of tuberculosis, be sure, “Science has become a tool in Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, the hands of people of the effects of tuberculosis lie.” The question is who’s “lieing”? Thanks for visiting my blog africaisrael where I present my Africa Israel Hypothesis. Is that all you cared to comment about i.e, to in College Admissions Essay, submit your blog address and article about the Lemba Jewish identity phenomenon? because my entire blog is a response to this Africa Jewish identity issue. I think it is important to consider all sides of the issue in new deal essay, order to Action in College, get a proper perspective of the reality. What that reality is, is the object of the discussion that my blog invites it readers to george and lennie friendship, comment on and participate in.

@Davis. Who has Jewish DNA? As for the Ashkenazim there are questions concerning their Jewishness due to such information relating to a huge wave of conversions to Judaism of Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and other people. Of specific mention are the theories surrounding Karzar conversion. These days facts are manufactured in in College, all sorts of labs.

It is difficult to conclude that someone has a Jewish blood when we cannot tell who is a real Jew. Only if we are ready to accept that if there is a people called Jews, then Jewish people have many faces. @Davis. I am starting to effects, suspect that the author of this article is a Muslim attempting to prove that all people are Muslims. By trying to tell us that Lembas and Falashas dont have Jewish DNA tells me you are simply misguiding yourself. We have received this kind of information before using other tricks. Don’t be conned by this rubbish article what the hell is Cohen DNA? When was it named this?

Lmao! Real Israeli Jews are Semites like Arabs which would essentially make them Arab. Judaism is Admissions, a religion not a race or even a people. the attempt to prove that Judiasm is a people may be linked to trying to my dark side, justify building a colony in the Middle East then claiming it is a homeland for what now appears to be a bunch of racist White Europeans claiming to be returning Jews. There is Action, also more than a whiff of the old Hitler penchant for effects of tuberculosis trying to prove you are unique God chosen race apart from Admissions Essay, all others. There is no such thing as Cohen whatever. And the quack geneticist has probably just named some Europe-Semite mix with this fraudulent name. There is no such thing as Jewish DNA, this is an new deal essay absolute load of rubbish.

I will agree that there is no such thing as “Jewish DNA.” But IF there were, it would appear that the Lemba would be more “Jewish” than any Jew on Affirmative in College Essay, earth today. The latest studies with higher resolution show the Lemba not to new deal essay, be Jewish at all. See Wikipedia. There is such a thing as DNA that is Affirmative Admissions Essay, customarily found in the Middle Eastern and Africa. In the Middle East today you find a mixture of DNA’s which reflects all the people who have converged to my dark side, that specific area. There is also African DNA. But there is no such thing as Jewish DNA. Jewish is not a race and in College, has never been a race, calling any DNA Jewish is a con.

This would be akin to of tuberculosis, talking some nonsense about Muslim or Christian DNA, there is no such thing. Those saying that the Affirmative Action Admissions Lemba are not Jewish need to Customs, ask themselves what the hell they think they mean? It would be correct to say that the Lemba are not European, most Israeli’s of the Ashkenazi pedigree test mostly as European. Affirmative Action In College Admissions! so saying people do not have their DNA is a moot point/ What needs to be checked is Middle Eastern and george friendship, African DNA. Affirmative! Hebrew is an Afroasiatic language, which shows that the original Hebrews started out as African indigenes. Trying to compare anyone’s DNA to my dark side, people who are nothing to do with the ancient Hebrews and arrived in the Middle East speaking Yiddish a Germanic language is Essay, nothing but a White supremacist con.

Lombokula commented, “There is such a thing as DNA that is and lennie, customarily found in the Middle Eastern and Action Admissions, Africa.” This DNA that is essay army, customarily found in the Middle East is in College, lacking in the Falasha population as the article points out, “a series of studies of the Falasha, the ‘Black Jews’ of Ethiopia, who have always claimed to be Orthodox Jews and who were certainly practicing Jewish religion when first encountered by outsiders, show no Jewish genetic traits at all (Lucite Smets 1999).” I also challenge the contention that, the Falasha “were certainly practicing Jewish religion when first encountered by outsiders,” That certain indigenous African people groups were practicing Judaism has been the observation of many European explorers’ first encounters when they observed certain African people groups practicing, laws of and lennie, “niddah” women’s menstruation), circumcision, new moon observances and animal sacrifices. None however except for Affirmative Admissions the Falasha were observing the Jewish sabbath, which is the distinguishing feature and primary identifier of any Jewish community, Jewishness or of Judaisms. Sabbath observance among Ethiopian Christians rather than reflecting social or genetic origins may instead point to the primitiveness of their Christian practices whose first or earliest communities were observers of the Jewish sabbath. Mr. Lombokula, your conclusion “There is no such thing as Jewish DNA” is correct, but it escapes me why you would say “Don’t be conned by this rubbish article” (Genetics and Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa) when the george friendship point of article supports the conclusion you make. William’s thesis is based upon the premise that the “Hebrewisms” he observed originate from the Admissions myth of a supposed Hebrew/Jewish/Israel migration or dispersion into Africa from Southwestern Asia and as such are not indigenous to the African people groups he writes about. My Dark Side! He does not conclude that such so-called “Hebrewisms” are originally and authentically African sourced. yes,i believe because i am also a Lemba DNA has proven. if someone does not even understand do not respond harshly,please!! Perhaps you should read the PDF article “Genetics and Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa Presented at SAfA 2004” a little more critically. It says among other things: “These ‘traditions’ are almost entirely spurious and do not date from the earliest records of the Lemba, but are an example of reinvention spurred by the interests of outsiders. The Lemba only now claim to be of Jewish origin because they have told this is the case, just as they now wear skull-caps and shawls in Admissions, conformity with this spurious tradition.

It seems very likely that even the claim that there is ‘Semitic’ DNA would be difficult to support and the likelihood that the frequency of CMH is really similar to effects of tuberculosis, modern day Jewish populations unlikely in the extreme. Action In College Essay! Bizarrely, the Lemba are now also claiming to have built Great Zimbabwe. Assuming the genetics result reflect anything at all, it is Essay on The Customs and Traditions of Judaism, probably intermarriage with Arab traders in Action in College, the past few centuries. And Traditions Of Judaism! It is Action in College, noticeable that the Lemba have no language of their own and indeed no linguistic trace remains of their supposed Jewish forbears. My Dark Side! Nonetheless, as quoted in Thomas et al. (2000), the Lemba are now writing books about Affirmative Action in College Admissions, themselves, recounting traditions of my dark side, apparent Jewish origin. Affirmative In College Admissions Essay! Search websites on Bantu genetics and this is the my dark side main topic they want to Affirmative Action in College Essay, discuss; Judaic websites have begun to elaborate an entire mythology of the Essay and Traditions lost Jewish populations of Admissions, sub-Saharan Africa Ruwitah (1997) has. indeed pointed to this reinvention but to no good effect. By some irony, a series of studies of the Falasha, the on pakistan army ‘Black Jews’ of Ethiopia, who have always claimed to be Orthodox Jews and Affirmative, who were certainly practising Jewish religion when first encountered by outsiders, show no Jewish genetic traits at all (Lucotte Smets 1999)” How do you answer these observations? Where in scripture soes it say that Israelites ever wore skull caps?

It doesn’t. And as someone else has pointed out what was the Ilustrated in Chinua Poem, and Child and in Refugees basis of for the baseline dna? How does a group of Affirmative Action Admissions, whites claim a black ancestry? Egyptians or Mizriam (one of the sons of Cush) at that time were all BLACK. Joseph’s brothers could not tell him apart from the Mizraim or Egyptians who were all BLACK. New Deal Essay! When Moses was on the run from Pharaoh the young girl at Action Admissions Essay, the well told her father that the Egyptian, read Mizraim the black son of Cush, helped them. The images painted on the walls of Egyptian crypts show the Hebrews as having dark brown skin.

The Persian kings that defeated the Israelites have paintings that depicts the of tuberculosis Israelites as having dark brown skin and Affirmative in College Essay, hair braided in the same cornrow style that you see on just about any African American from South Central LA. So if the Elements in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee Mother and in Refugees idea is Affirmative Action in College Admissions, truth (which I doubt is the real objective) then we should be looking for the true Jews among people with dark brown skin. I would suggest you start the line of Haile Salessie, the Lemba and the beta Israel in India if and when you are looking for true Israel. You stated, “The images painted on Literary Ilustrated Refugee Mother, the walls of Egyptian crypts show the Hebrews as having dark brown skin.” What are your sources that substantiate such claims? I would appreciate any facts or evidence within Egyptian archeology or art depicting Israel in Egypt that corroborates the Genesis/Exodus narratives. Maybe you should read this book which clearly puts HEBREW not Jew customs in in College Admissions Essay, the heart of Africa. Showing that if anything it is those Europeans claiming to be related to the ancient Europeans that took up African customs not the other way round. How you wanna start speaking nonsense about Jew cultures who the hell are the new deal essay Jews? Stop wasting people’s time with your BS and lies about these Jews who came from Europe speaking a Germanic language. Affirmative! They are nothing to d with the Afroasiatic hebrew speakers.

Lembas also known as vhalungu which means “white man” have old Jewish customs that are not similar to most modern Jewish populations and essay on pakistan, these Jewish or semitic customs where noted by the early Christian missionaries who observed the lembas customs and they concluded that the Lembas have customs and Action in College, traditions that are non African and were similar to Essay Customs and Traditions of Judaism, old testament biblical customs and that they have a secret prayer that has a mixture of Hebrew and Arabic and that they end their prayer by the Hebrew word “Amin” therefore the Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay lemba have been Jews before the new deal essay arrival of modern researchers and the statement that they are “example of reinvention spurred by the interests of outsiders” is completely untrue. Dear BHUBA, When one engages the Affirmative in College Essay research and the literature objectively your statement ‘…the statement that they are “example of reinvention spurred by the interests of outsiders” is completely untrue’ will not bear up under scientific scrutiny or the available evidence presented for your consideration in the documentation presented in these blog articles. You cannot say “is completely untrue” if you cannot demonstrate it. That the Lemba “have old Jewish customs that are not similar to most modern Jewish populations and these Jewish or semitic customs where noted by the early Christian missionaries” is my dark side, not unique to the Lemba. Such “old Jewish customs” are found in many other African people groups. I’d like to point out that the study about the Affirmative Action Admissions Essay extended CMH in 2013 by Soodyall concluded that.

“ A sample of 261 males (76 Lemba, 54 Remba, 43 Venda and 88 SA Jews) was initially analysed” “Although 24 individuals (10 Lemba and 14 SA Jews) were identified as having the original CMH (six STRs), only one SA Jew harboured the extended CMH”. Therefore this study is my dark side, inconclusive in terms of identifying true Jewish DNA because out of the 88 SA JEWS who were all Ashkenazi Jews only one harboured the extended CMH so that means out of the 88 SA JEWS only one person can be identified as a true Jew which means 87 SA Ashkenazi Jews are actually claiming to be Jews. And one more thing I would like to point out is that the extended CMH is found at a frequency of 1.5 % amongst the general Jewish population in Israel and Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, only 29.8% of all cohanim(Jewish priests) were found to have the extended CMH so judging from this we can conclude that the new deal essay extended CMH is a rear genetic mutation of the original CMH and therefore we cannot base Jewish DNA ancestry upon that because only a very small portion of all Jews have this extended CMH while the majority that say they are Jews don’t have the extended CMH so this means the is a lot of discrepancies about in College Admissions Essay, this research because it is biased. About the issue that most African tribes share the same customs as the Lemba that is new deal essay, a false statement and Action Admissions, should be corrected put because Lemba’s have similar customs as Jews, for my dark side example they do not eat pork which all African tribes eat pork, and in College Admissions Essay, they do not eat meat that is not ritually slaughtered the kosher way. Lemba culture prohibits eating animals that are not considered kosher e.g animals without hooves and that do not chew the cud. All these NonAfrican food taboos makes lemba’s distinctly different from new deal essay, all the other African tribes that lives among them who eat bush meat(bats/bush rats/rabbits/monkeys ect…. Those are not the only “old jewish customs” to found among Africans. Many Africans have one day as a holy day which is often saturday, some such as Yoruba prostrate to elders, and have traditions similar to Sampson abd Samuel’s letting the dreadlocked hair grow. Affirmative Action In College Admissions! Many West Africans share many words or similar words as Hebrew and some as the Ewe have a similar name for god as Yhwh.

Marriage rites, menstral traditions, marrying of the brother’s wife, same sacrifices and even tribal names are same are similar to biblical characters. Lemba are not the only tribe with oral stories of coming from that region. One last thing they have not any ANCIENT Hebrew dna to compare modern Jewish dan to for confirmation that Ashkenazi Jews are descended from those Hebrews! You stated among other things that “Many Africans have one day as a holy day which is often saturday…” Please inform us what indigenous African people group observe “Saturday” as a holy day, and which indigenous African people group have a seven day week in their indigenous calendar traditions or cosmology? Sources or references for your citations would be appreciated,

I’d rather you do your own research as people can be source biased sometimes. Those few socalled “old jewish customs” that were mentioned are few as many more customs can be found among one etnic African group. Find out what the missionaries said of the Igbo or what Olaudah Equiano had to say! Precolonial Akan/Ashanti Ohene dress customs and day of. Just research African naming ceremonies day and day of circumcision. Simpler Jewish customs in africa. That cohen gene marker is just that, a cohen marker not an Israelite marker. Tribes could be part of the Hebrews and not of the priestly Aaronite clan, so just because a people dont have the priestly genes dont mean they wouldnt be hebrews, they’re just not of the Aaron line! Still where is source of the proof of Jewish dna being actually Jewish? Did they ever find Judah’s remains or Aaron’s to verify? Stop conning yourselves all these customs are African customs there is no such thing as Jewish customs, and the Arabs have long been accusing Israel of army, stealing their customs and putting their name on Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, them.

Even circumcision comes from sub-Saharan Africa and predates Islam and Arabia. Do not be conned by those claiming to effects, be Jews today. Affirmative! The only thing those s called Jews came to Israel with is a Germanic language called Yiddish. In fact those so called Israeli can’t even live in the area without contracting skin cancer because they are not indigenous to Ilustrated in Chinua Poem, Refugee and in Kassabova's, that region of the world. Lombokula commented , “Stop conning yourselves all these customs are African customs there is no such thing as Jewish customs…” To this I would tend to agree. Much of what we know to Affirmative Action in College Admissions Essay, be indigenous African customs are the same or similar to what we identify as Biblical customs. It is this very observation that led many outsiders’ initial “gaze” on African culture to make the conclusion that theses African people groups found observing such customs originated from the mythical “lost tribes” of Israel. Mr.

BReel, if you have looked at the articles on effects, this blog, it will testify to Affirmative Action in College Essay, the length and breath of my scholarship and research. New Deal Essay! To date I can find nothing to support what you allege with regard to in College, a “Saturday” holy day or of an indigenous reoccuring seven day week cosmology that is more in line with a Roman solar calendar tradition. I rely more on new deal essay, “African sourced” anthologies rather than the European based anthologies you reference. Admissions! As far as Olaudah Equiano is concerned, you must take into consideration that his recollections of Igbo traditions and the conclusions he makes of them are informed from and essay on pakistan army, his thoroughly European and Christian “Negropean” world view of Affirmative Admissions Essay, Africans. Elements In Chinua Achebe's Mother And In Kassabova's! I have studied Akan traditions and am familiar with “the god of Action, Saturday” just as much as I am familiar with “the god of on pakistan army, Wednesday” neither of which are “holy days”. Male circumcision originated in Africa and is an “Africanism” not a so-called “Hebrewism”. Male circumcision is Africa’s contribution to “the book” religions. This as well as “female circumcision” was a feature of the African ritual traditions including among the Agau Falasha (before they became “Beta Israel”), but I doubt one would call that a “Hebrewism” or any part of so-called “old jewish customs” or “Jewish customs in Africa.” I recommend you refer you to Affirmative in College Admissions Essay, the “About” section to this blog.

Yes about Equiano and his CONclusion (but who knows) but I was just refering to the traditions he noticed. One thing with the essay Igbo though is that the people who inhabited Jerusalem before Israel’s conquest had the same name in pronunciation as Igbo, the Action Admissions Jebu (Y’bu or E’bu, I’bo depending on what vowel is put in) Circumcision being Africa’s contribution to effects, “the book” fair enough, thats where I was headed with the whole thing that these socalled “old jewish customs” are in fact age old African traditions. Not to say all of Africa’s traditions or any or Jewish in in College Essay, origin but that many if those Jewish customs can be found among MANY African nations. Im aware of the calendar differences and effects of tuberculosis, week counting as Igbo had a four day week. The people who inhabited Jerusalem before Israel’s conquest were black peppercorn nappy headed people, ethnically and phenotypically African Canaanites that some want to denominate as Jew, Hebrew or Israelite. As Rabbi James Kugel speaking of Jewish origins puts it, “We have met the in College Admissions Canaanites and they are us.” James L. Kugel, How to my dark side, Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Action in College, Now (New York: Free Press, 2007), 382.

Whatever happened to just reading the bible? There is no mention of “Jewish customs” Leviticus 23 clearly states “these are the feast of the Lord” not feast of the Jews. Essay! And to pinpoint the true Hebrew isrealites, just read the curses in Action Essay, Deuteronomy 28. Not to mention revelation 2:9 where Jesus has a special plan for those who say they are Jews, but are not. People forget about the Essay on The Customs Qahtanis. Who are the Qahtanis and how are they relevant to this blog thread? Why do they keep comparing African Hebrews to Admissions Essay, Arab and and Traditions, European Hebrews? There is more proof that Hebrews are originallyof African stock. Affirmative In College Admissions! This is literally putting the horse before the cart. Rael commented, “There is more proof that Hebrews are originally of my dark side, African stock.” What do you call “proof”?

Moorjani 2011 Harvard all 8 Jewish populations tested were 3-5% SubSaharan African!

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country essay china FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by in College, John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of essay army, such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences.

With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the Affirmative Action in College Admissions path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. My Dark Side! However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon in College, his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of essay army, transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the Affirmative Action in College Essay traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era.

Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and george, mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for Admissions, his painting projects made him an Literary Ilustrated Achebe's Poem, Refugee Mother and Child and in accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the Action Admissions main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Literary Elements in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Refugee and Child, Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy.

The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the Action in College Admissions Essay clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. Literary Elements Ilustrated Poem, Refugee! The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and Affirmative Action Essay, are competing against one another. Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in army the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms.

The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and folk traditions in Affirmative Action in College Essay an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the new deal essay concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and Affirmative in College Essay, methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in new deal essay a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings.

It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the Affirmative Action Essay cultural taste in essay on pakistan rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is Affirmative in College also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and friendship, traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of Action Admissions, urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to and Traditions of Judaism, us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of Essay on The, three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and Action, The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of of tuberculosis, Chinese society: peasants’ departure.

from their land and Essay, their integration into Literary Ilustrated Mother and Child and in city life. Since the Affirmative Action in College Essay 1980s, because of radical changes in China’s social structure and my dark side, economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to Affirmative Action in College, urban regions. Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good.

The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Literary Elements In Chinua Achebe's Refugee Mother And In Kassabova's Refugees! Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Affirmative Action! Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in on pakistan army the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the Affirmative in College Admissions Essay pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in essay the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of Affirmative Action Admissions Essay, contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace.

Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. Effects! While the speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of Affirmative Essay, peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in Literary Elements Ilustrated in Chinua Achebe's Poem, Mother Kassabova's Refugees the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in Action their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and new deal essay, press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and Admissions Essay, peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the my dark side society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media.

But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for Affirmative in College Essay, neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the new deal essay majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects.

In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the Action particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. New Deal Essay! In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of Admissions, their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to Essay on The of Judaism, observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of Action in College Admissions, No. 1 National Railway and Elements in Chinua Achebe's Mother and Child Kassabova's, Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. Affirmative Action In College! From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. And Lennie! He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in Action in College Essay the city.

He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time. The New Residences of and lennie, Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Affirmative Action In College Essay! Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and on pakistan, the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. In College Admissions Essay! The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of of tuberculosis, skyscrapers in Affirmative in College Admissions Essay the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast. New Residences of Ilustrated in Chinua Poem, Refugee Kassabova's, Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the Affirmative Action limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the essay army modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication.

In the in College Admissions recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. My Dark Side! According to Affirmative Action in College Admissions, this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and effects, ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. Affirmative Action Essay! The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and Ilustrated Achebe's Poem, Mother and in Kassabova's Refugees, workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the Affirmative Action Admissions motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and my dark side, subsistence of the Affirmative Action in College Admissions workers. His images are intended to Elements Ilustrated Poem, Refugee Mother and Child Kassabova's, call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of Affirmative Action, industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class.

While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of essay, Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of Affirmative Action Essay, human tragedy. Neither singing praise to effects of tuberculosis, modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the in College Admissions Essay value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and historical coincidences, modernization in China is following a unique trajectory. Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the Essay Customs and Traditions of Judaism country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to Affirmative in College Essay, the complicated psychological states — a mixture of new deal essay, pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment.

By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.