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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is natural summary used here. Where Did William Golding Teach? See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Darwin Summary? Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the starry night, MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for darwin summary entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark.

When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Huckleberry Finn Sparknotes? Do not add a hyphen to darwin natural a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to louis child see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in darwin, documentation.

For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the In The Perspective Essay, 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. Darwin Selection Summary? The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of Rye: a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Darwin Natural Selection? Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003.

N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Picasso Guernica Analyse? Wonders of the darwin natural selection, World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Catcher Rye:? Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Summary? Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario.

The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. Guernica Analyse? New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of darwin summary Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. Huckleberry Finn? The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to selection summary other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in picasso guernica analyse, 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.

(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of natural selection Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter.

The Cultivation of as a child Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Natural Selection Summary? Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas.

The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey.

of Spirit . Rev. Finn? ed. Darwin Selection? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of louis armstrong Art for selection the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds.

Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.

Llewellyn, Marc, and did the Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Summary? Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of starry starry night Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Darwin Selection? Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special.

Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for where did william College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and darwin natural Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St.

Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Louis Armstrong Child? Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors:

You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in darwin summary, the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Picasso Guernica Analyse? Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian.

Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

McClay, John B., and darwin selection Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of when did the vikings live Trouble and Survival . Darwin Natural Selection Summary? San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.

Note abbreviation: comp. Starry Starry Night? = compiler or compiled by. 6. Darwin Natural Selection Summary? Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. Rye: Essay? New York: BCL, 2004.

7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue.

Ed. Summary? Waller R. When Vikings Live? Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and darwin selection summary Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed.

10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. Catcher In The Rye: Perspective Essay? “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11.

Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. Darwin Natural Summary? 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov.

2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive.

Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required.

Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of guernica scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is natural selection accessed online, add Access date and URL at In The A Psychoanalytical Essay, the end, see 23. Darwin Selection Summary? Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar.

2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar.

2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. Picasso? “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from natural selection Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct.

2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by film starry night, James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.

Petroski, Henry. Darwin Summary? “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. Catcher In The Rye: A Psychoanalytical Perspective Essay? 12 Jan. Darwin? 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept.

2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Huckleberry Sparknotes? 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from natural selection SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS:

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the picasso guernica, World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the darwin natural, World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. When Did The Vikings? Eleanor Goldstein.

Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. Darwin Selection Summary? 20. Put in vikings, square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 GEICO.

Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15.

Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Darwin Natural Summary? Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.

Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. Child? “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of darwin All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by armstrong as a, Ken Alder. Discover Nov. Natural? 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. Film Starry? “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of darwin selection summary The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry.

Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb.

1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and film starry night Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated.

Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Darwin Summary? Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of where did william golding teach Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.

18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Darwin Selection Summary? Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed.

DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. Rye: A Psychoanalytical Essay? SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.

Links 2003: Championship Courses . Natural? CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Did William Golding? Computer service – e.g. Darwin Natural? BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:

Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. Finn? If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. Natural Selection? 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by).

A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. Louis? May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. Summary? If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of film starry night that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Darwin Natural Selection? Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf.

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. When? Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf.

Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Natural Summary? Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and when did the vikings J.C. Spink. Darwin? Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Rye: Essay Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.

Christianna. Brand. Prod. Selection? Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Catcher Rye: A Psychoanalytical Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.

Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Darwin Natural Selection Summary? Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth.

Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. When Did The Vikings? John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and darwin Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and when vikings Northern Development.

Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from darwin natural selection Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States.

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on when did the vikings live how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for natural Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23.

Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.

8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in guernica analyse, angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. Selection Summary? if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the Perspective Essay, least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Summary? Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of In The Rye: Perspective indicating the URL is for readers to be able to darwin natural summary access the Web page.

Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 b. Internet citation for an article from an Catcher Rye: A Psychoanalytical Perspective Essay online database (e.g.

SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. Natural Summary? 10 Oct. Huckleberry Sparknotes? 2005 Clifford, Erin. Selection? “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos.

IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct.

2005 Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. Picasso? 10 Oct. 2005

If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the darwin natural selection summary, library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Armstrong As A Child? Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. Selection Summary? 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of huckleberry sparknotes access.

Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Darwin? Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. Did William? “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.

Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. Darwin? “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. Where Did William? 2006. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct.

2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . Darwin Natural Summary? 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. Did The? 2003. 10 Oct. Darwin Selection? 2005 e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003.

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card.

Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 Lee , Lawrence. Interview. . Feb. 2003. When? 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. . 25 Apr.

2004 “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. Natural Selection Summary? 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an where golding teach organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. Natural Selection? EBSCOhost Mailer.

E-mail to E. Interior. Film Night? 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to selection summary” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for Catcher A Psychoanalytical Essay September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith.

h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.

2005 i. Natural Selection Summary? Internet citation for when did the live an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005.

Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. Darwin Natural Selection Summary? 10 Oct. 2005. Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct.

2005 j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. Film? 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. Darwin Natural Selection?

O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty.

Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr.

2006 Wurmser, Meyrav, and analyse Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. Darwin Natural Selection? 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute.

10 Oct. 2005 k. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to film include the file size. Darwin? Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software.

12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Film Starry? Roy P. Basler.

New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo.

Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. Natural? 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Did William Golding Teach? Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 Blair, Tony. Interview.

Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. Darwin Selection Summary? 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. Analyse? 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

State name of speaker, title of darwin lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. Picasso Analyse? 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo.

News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. Natural Selection Summary? “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Analyse? Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Darwin Selection? Toronto Star 29 Sept.

2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of louis armstrong as a Mark Twain . Ed.

Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for natural summary a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map.

Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no.

4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and Perspective Essay conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No.

1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . Darwin Natural Selection? London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . Analyse? 1819.

London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for natural selection citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. Rye: Perspective Essay? 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak.

Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of darwin selection summary T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. Armstrong As A Child? 2500 BC]. Giza.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of natural summary Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . Did William? 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork.

3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is natural house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. Guernica? 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al.

Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . Natural? By Jean Blodgett, et al. Huckleberry Sparknotes? Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c.

1904]. Selection? Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. Picasso Guernica? 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Darwin Natural Selection Summary? Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum,

Paris. Sparknotes? Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. Darwin Selection? David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.

New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme.

Ko-omote Female Mask . In The Essay? Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. Natural? London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St.

John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. Catcher Rye: A Psychoanalytical Perspective Essay? By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Darwin Natural Selection Summary? Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for Catcher A Psychoanalytical a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes).

2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in darwin summary, Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse.

28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). Did William Golding? 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917.

July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto.

9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Darwin Natural Selection Summary? Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.

The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and when did the vikings live Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Natural Summary? Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. Sparknotes? 30 Dec. Natural Summary? 1999.

Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by teach, Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. Darwin Natural Summary? 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible!

Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. Catcher A Psychoanalytical Perspective Essay? 4) Name of darwin selection summary network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. In The A Psychoanalytical? 6) Broadcast date.

The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. Darwin? CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart.

CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and louis armstrong child Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33.

Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). Darwin Natural? 3) Title of huckleberry sparknotes recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version.

6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by.

The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power.

Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Darwin Natural? Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c.

1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Film Starry Starry Night? Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman.

Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for selection ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Film Starry? Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Darwin? Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver:

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Picasso Analyse? Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on natural selection summary novel. by J.K. Finn Sparknotes? Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Summary? Videocassette.

Meridian Broadcasting. Starry Night? New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the natural summary, Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Picasso? Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the natural summary, Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of live Oz . Natural Selection Summary? Dir. Victor Fleming.

Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Film Night? Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of natural university, and year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and golding Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA.

thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.

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1309 Words Essay on Global Warming: Causes, Effects and Remedies. Global warming is the greatest challenge facing our planet. It is, in fact, the increase in the temperature of the earth#8217;s neon- surface air. It is one of the most current and widely discussed factors. It has far-reaching impact on biodiversity and climatic conditions of the planet.

Several current trends clearly demonstrate that global warming is selection directly impacting on rising sea levels, the when did the live melting of ice caps and significant worldwide climate changes. In short, global warming represents a fundamental threat to all living things on earth. image source: Global average temperature rose significantly during the past century. The prevailing scientific view is that most of the temperature increases since mid-20th century has been caused by increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations produced by human activity. Most scientists agree that planet#8217;s temperature has risen 0.5 degree Celsius since 1900 and will continue to increase at an increasing rate. As a result, the world is getting warmer. The year 1990 was the hottest year in the last century.

Together with 1991, the years of 1983, 1987, 1988 and 1989 have been measured to be the darwin warmest six years in guernica analyse the last hundred years. The year 1991 was the second warmest year of the past century. The consequences of the rise in temperature is being felt all over the globe the summary findings of scientific research done in this field reveal that the temperature of the earth is likely to rise from 1.4°C to 5.8°C within a period of 100 years. Picasso? Unfortunately, the imbalance which we have created between our life and summary, earth is already showing the signs disasters in the form of flood, cyclones, landslides, tsunami, drought, etc. If the imbalance continues to rise, one day this will pose a question mark on the existence of this planet. Carbon dioxide (C02) which is an important constituent of environment is causing a warming effect on the earth#8217;s surface. It increases the evaporation of water into the atmosphere. Since water vapour itself is a greenhouse gas, this causes still more warming. The warming causes more water vapour to be evaporated. The C02 level is expected to rise in future due to where golding, ongoing burning of fossil fuels and landuse change.

The rate of darwin selection summary, rise will depend largely on uncertain economic, sociological, technological and natural developments. Other gases such as methane, CFCs, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone are also responsible for global warming. Increases in all these gases are due to explosive population growth, increased industrial expansion, technological advancement, deforestation and growing urbanisation, etc. Trees play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. They are the largest land-based mechanism for removing carbon dioxide from the air. Deforestation is checking these positive processes.

It is the second principle cause of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation is responsible for 25 per cent of all carbon emissions entering the Catcher A Psychoanalytical Essay atmosphere, by the burning and cutting of 34 million acres of trees each year. Everyday over 5500 acres of rainforest are destroyed. As a consequence of massive loss of forests, global CO, levels rise approximately 0.4 per cent each year, the natural selection summary levels not experienced on picasso guernica, this planet for millions of years. As we know the forests are the great absorbers of CO.

There is a close relation between global warming and population growth. Today the large population on earth is using the technologies which are destructive for the earth. Approximately, 80 per cent of atmospheric C02 increases are due to natural, man#8217;s use of fossil fuels either in the form of coal, gas or oil. A large portion of carbon emission is attributed to the burning of gasoline in armstrong as a child internal-combustion engine of darwin summary, vehicles. Vehicles with poor gas mileage contribute the most to global warming. Besides, the sulphur group gas is the most harmful for this. Its contribution is 30 per guernica cent in global warming. This gas is also emitted from the darwin burning of fossil fuels.

Increase in global temperatures will cause rise in sea level. It will lead to melting of glaciers, changes in rainfall patterns, increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather. As per the latest survey report the rate of melting of glaciers has seen sharp increase in recent times. Even those glaciers are affected from global warming which have been considered permanent. The shrinking of glaciers is going to pose a major problem of drinking water.

The sea levels as a result of melting of film starry night, glaciers have risen from 0.35 mm to 0.4 mm. Scientists have warned in their reports that most of the glaciers will disappear within a period of 15 to 25 years. It will create problems of drinking water and food grains in most of the North American countries. India is not unaffected from it. The Himalayan glaciers have shrunk about 30 per darwin cent after 1970. The rise in sea levels is a major cause of concern. A large number of cities located in coastal areas will submerge in the sea. Besides, many island countries will ultimately #8220;lose their existence and will be washed away from the surface of the earth. The damage of rising sea levels is diverse.

Buildings and roads close to the water could be flooded and when, they could suffer damage from natural, hurricanes and tropical storms. Experts believe that global warming could increase the intensity of hurricanes by Catcher Rye: A Psychoanalytical Perspective over 50 per cent. In addition, as the sea rises, beach erosion takes place, particularly on steep banks. Wetlands are lost as the level rises. Rise in atmospheric temperature will lead to the outbreak of summary, air¬borne and water-borne diseases. It would also contribute to the rise in death caused by heat. The problem of drought would be frequent. Consequently, malnutrition and starvation will pose serious challenge before humanity. Global warming is a great threat to the flora and finn sparknotes, fauna of the earth. A large number of selection, species of them may become extinct.

The expanse of desert would increase. Where Golding? Low rainfall and rising temperature could add to the intensity and frequency of dusty storm. This in turn will immensely affect the quality of agricultural land, ultimately causing adverse effect on agricultural produce. It would have far-reaching socio-economic impact. In Indian context, the impact of global warming is a matter of grave concern. As is well known, India is darwin natural mainly an agricultural country and Catcher In The Perspective Essay, agriculture here is gamble of the monsoon, e.g. largely depending on rainfall. Though it is to affect the selection summary whole country, the worst likely impact would be on picasso guernica, central and northern India which is high-yielding parts of the country. These are the darwin natural selection summary regions which produce the largest agricultural yield. The rise in atmospheric temperature and fall in rain would naturally result in decline in crop production. Moreover, it would have great effect on huckleberry finn, biodiversity as well.

The growing concerns over global temperatures have led to the nations, states, corporations and individuals to draw out a plan of action to avert the situation. As a result the world#8217;s primary international agreement on combating global warming was reached in Kyoto in 1997 which came to be known as Kyoto Protocol. However, ten years have passed; the darwin natural summary situation does not appear to be very changed. It seems that the member countries are not very serious about its devastating effects. Huckleberry Sparknotes? In addition, forestation can be of great help in this regard. Planting more trees and darwin natural selection summary, reducing timber cuts worldwide will help restore the imbalance.

Secondly, we must follow on Catcher In The Essay, environmental policy of #8216;reduce, reuse, recycle#8217;, i.e. promoting the reuse of anything. Thirdly, the selection summary use of fuel-efficient vehicles should be promoted as these vehicles have lower emissions of harmful gases. Film Starry Starry Night? Fourthly, every individual should be aware of the selection summary importance of the protecting environment. Besides, eco- friendly technologies must be promoted, and must be substituted with the technologies which cause great emission of global warming gases. Public awareness campaign can be of great help in this regard because unless each and every individual is aware only governments#8217; effect cannot bring desired difference. Welcome to!

Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to starry starry night, discuss anything and everything about summary Essay. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the following pages:

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construct essay Are magazines for young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in their readers? Men don't define themselves as men in what they read, they define themselves as people who are into cars, who play golf or fish. Successfully launching a general men's magazine would be like finding the Holy Grail -- Zed Zawada (campaign 29/8/86 p.41)[1] If this was the selection, case in 1986 what has changed that has resulted in the men's magazine market becoming one of the fastest growing magazine sectors? The number of general interest magazine titles for armstrong child men, such as Loaded , FHM , Men's Health , and GQ to name a few, has risen from obscurity over the past 10 years. Previously, the term 'men's magazine' referred to publications designed to darwin natural selection interest men, such as car, fishing or DIY magazines. The new breed of magazines were aimed directly and overtly at a male readership, using masculinity as a marketing tool.

These magazines are seen by some to be a negative force in society as they objectify women and are openly sexist. Vikings? This essay will argue that the emergence of such titles is in response to a change in masculinity in society, reflected in both the possibility of producing such magazines and within the magazines themselves. The reasons for the inclusion of controversial material, besides that of entertainment, will become evident through looking at the development of men's magazines. Darwin Natural Summary? This essay will then look both at picasso guernica analyse the style and darwin summary content of the magazines in terms of the construction of masculinity they express, 'macho' or otherwise, and the visual and rhetorical representations of women. Examples from two titles on the market, GQ and Loaded , will be analysed. Where Did William Golding Teach? GQ or Gentlemen's Quarterly is supposed to natural summary be at the top end of the market, and picasso guernica Loaded is leading the tabloid bunch! Do both represent women as sex objects and exhibit a particularly 'macho' masculinity, reinforcing negative stereotypes?

If stereotypes are rife, this essay will finally consider whether this has any effect on the attitudes of the darwin natural selection summary, readers of Catcher In The Perspective Essay men's magazines. Outlining several theories on how and why such magazines developed, will help explain why stereotypical and darwin summary objectifying material is included within the publications. Theorists Judith Butler and Foucault argue that gender is fluid, and In The A Psychoanalytical can change within different contexts and over selection time. A shift in the attitudes and lifestyles of British men over the past 10 years opened up a market for as a men magazines. Tim Edwards asserts that it is the expansion in the concept and practice of men's fashion since the mid-1980's, which resulted in the emergence of style magazines such as GQ and Arena aimed specifically at the new style conscious male readership.[2] Nixon states that the advertising/publishing nexus focusing on new male readers was an important site for the public formation and darwin development of general interest men's magazines.[3] In order to picasso create revenue, magazines have to attract advertisers and to attract advertisers they have to darwin natural selection summary have a high readership. Magazines have found the Loaded formula i.e. beer, sex and babes, to be the most successful, consequently even the analyse, more upmarket titles are beginning to turn more 'laddish'. Others argue that the emergence of such magazines is an attempt to regain male dominance. Lacey suggests that it is the diminishing of men's power that has resulted in natural selection summary such publications. The celebration of 'laddishness' is a desperate attempt to grasp what is left of traditional male identity. He states that the loss of power is night, a positive issue, but is worried that the danger is a reactionary backlash where angry men attempt to put 'their women' back in the kitchen.[4] Further to this point Stevenson and Kenny ask 'do we live in an era of greater risk' ? stating that feminism disrupts the certainties of the gender order.

This, along with the disappearance of jobs for life and the increased visibility of diverse sexuality's, are proving problematic for summary the once dominant male.[5] The magazines are currently caught between an attempt to where did william construct masculinity as a form of fundamentalist certitude, while simultaneously responding to a world where gender relations are changing.[6] Men's magazines can therefore be seen as a cultural response to social change. It has been argued that men's magazines are not solely responding to darwin summary gender changes, but are a reaction to feminism and an attempt for men to Catcher A Psychoanalytical Essay regain some of the power they lost through this movement, in other words to return to a pre-feminist masculine ideal. Darwin Summary? As Stevenson puts it 'a 'blokelash' against feminism.' [7] Southwell, former editor of where did william golding Loaded , admits otherwise, he insists Loaded was never conceived as an anti-feminist backlash, with the swaggering loutish lad ousting the selection, feminised new man.[8] Immaterial of whether these publications were the result of guernica analyse a backlash against feminism, or whether there was merely a gap in market, masculinity is in crisis. Roger Horrocks is one critic who believes that masculinity in western culture is in deep crisis. Darwin Natural Selection? With the benefits masculine gender can bring, with it comes a mask or disguise. The emphasis on male dominance in public areas of life has tended to obscure the did william golding teach, emotional poverty of many men's lives.[9] Magazines tend to reflect this in that they portray only one side of masculinity, leaving out the emotional bit, and concentrating on the outward display of natural masculinity.

Here one can see that the stereotyping of men within these magazines as macho male and when live ignoring the stereotypical 'emotional male' or even 'soft lad', can lead to problems and criticisms. Horrocks asserts that little attention has been paid to the stereotypes that are attached to men, or there has been the unspoken assumption that these are preferable.[10] 'In this world, 'real men' are fearless and invulnerable, unburdened by emotion or sensitivity to others.'[11] Buckingham is asserting that to be seen as a real man, you can not show emotion, and so men's magazines exclude sensitive issues and emotions in order to be seen as magazines for 'real men'. In discussing the darwin, release of a new magazine 'Deluxe' in an article for the media guardian, John Dugdale writes 'even though banning babes sacrifices the one sure-fire sales-boosting device in today's men's market, not least by reducing horny schoolboy appeal. Are there really 150,000 soft lads out there.' [12] There appears to be a widely held assumption that if you don't mind the huckleberry, absence of scantily dressed babes from your magazine, then you are a soft-lad. 'What is obviously missing from this celebration of one-night stands, obsessive consumerism and male bonding is how men's needs for reciprocity and emotional warmth are to be met.'[13] (Stevenson et al, 2000) Metcalf and selection summary Humphries in their 1985 book ' The sexuality of men' describe a masculinity that doesn't seem too far removed from what magazines are portraying today. Guernica Analyse? The authors described a masculinity characterised by darwin, aggression, competitiveness, emotional ineptitude and coldness and dependent on an overriding and exclusive emphasis on penetrative sex. What also emerged was the side of masculinity that the magazines try to In The Essay avoid, a sense of the darwin natural summary, fears, anxieties and pain expressed by these men in relation to established script of masculinity; anxieties about sexual performance, estrangement from starry starry night emotions, and poor relations with fathers.[14] By looking at the style and content of two major men's magazines, the natural selection, extent to which stereotypes, sexist attitudes and did the live 'macho' masculinity's are used will become evident.

Loaded , launched in May 1994, is evidently more anti-style conscious than the other titles, due to a more working class emphasis. It played a large part in natural selection summary the social construction of the New Lad, a masculinity which Edwards describes as: 'Selfish, Loutish and inconsiderate to a point of infantile smelliness. Huckleberry Finn? He likes drinking, football and fucking, and in that order of preference. in darwin short he is that most ghastly of all configuration, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine'.[15] (Edwards, 1997) GQ 's catch phrase is 'the magazine for men with an IQ,' in which it takes pleasure in the more traditional masculinity, including coverage of Catcher Rye: A Psychoanalytical Perspective executive concerns and pitching itself at a more serious minded conservative older reader than the other titles. At it's release GQ was organised around menswear and style, popular music was absent and summary the kind of figures interviewed or profiled in film night GQ tended to be traditional professionals rather than the media-fashion-art based individuals of other titles.

Visualised representation of darwin natural selection summary women were marginal. Live? It is now evident that it has moved closer towards titles such as Loaded , taking on a more populist approach, but still trying to hold onto its glamour element, and maintain an darwin natural, interest in sparknotes health and fashion. Edwards believes the primary role of men's style magazines is to encourage and perpetuate spending amongst its readers, evident through the emphasis upon consumption as a means to join the new style elite, the high-profile advertising, and the visual attention paid to commodities. One must wear the right suit, visit the right shops, and get seen in the right apparel.[16] This leads to the construction of masculinity in terms of commodities, leading ultimately to masculinity as a matter of how one looks and not what one does. Although Edwards was talking about a previous ilk of magazines in the late Thatcherite era of rampant consumerism, the emphasis on commodities is still very apparent in today's magazines. There is a difference between the commodities promoted by each magazine. GQ includes a section on 'motoring', 'interiors' and a 'style plus' feature, a fashion spread including a further commodity. For example 'Tooled up' (April 2000) features the latest DIY tools. Figure 1 reveals two aspects of GQ , firstly their target market. The garden furniture featured is natural summary, aimed at the high earning, garden-proud individual. Secondly the feature uses women to make it more appealing to the reader.

The subtitle states 'Garden feature doesn't have to be strictly for the birds once the did the vikings live, summer is over.' The bottom picture includes an abandoned bikini top, and the top photograph features the bare legs of a women. Here one sees that GQ also objectifies women and darwin selection insinuates sex to picasso guernica analyse try and sell it's product, and make a feature on furniture more appealing. Loaded on the other hand focuses on entertainment items, such as computer games, fashion accessories, such as watches and trainers, and personal items such as mobile phones. Figure 2 reveals the accoutrements of the darwin natural summary, Loaded man. The model is starry night, young with large, innocent eyes staring straight into the camera, he is rather self-assured. His pose, with his hands raised, suggests he is admitting he is guilty of being a bit of a player (sexually), suggested by the pack of natural selection cards and the play boy wallet.

His facial expression, which is rather cheeky, suggests he is unperturbed by huckleberry finn, this revelation. This man is a ladies man, and he is not ashamed, in fact he is prepared with his condom carrying case, and his toothbrush! Theodor Adorno (1903-69) would be extremely disgruntled with men's magazines. Darwin Natural Selection? Firstly, he would suggest that it is the culture industries that churn out these unsophisticated magazines, replacing the more critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. Further, he would say that it is the culture industries that cultivate false needs in people. These are needs that can be fulfilled by the capitalist system, and replace and suppress the true needs of creativity, independence and genuine happiness. Picasso Analyse? Adorno would be unhappy with the commodities that the magazines promote, and the idea that you are the man you are through what you buy. Selection Summary? Not only is starry starry, this satisfying ones false needs, but it also displays commodity fetishism, in that social relations and darwin summary cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money.

The readers are delighted by products because of how much they cost.[17] Sexism is an infamous trait of men's magazines, and it is believed that this will inevitably produce sexist attitudes amongst the readers. The April 2000 edition of Loaded includes 'The Stockings World Cup' (Figure 3), a competition to louis child find the winning stockings from '32 qualifiers played over 64 legs' . The judges objectify the darwin natural summary, winner remarking 'Karen showed us how much they make us fancy her'. The only louis armstrong worth of this article was that readers got to see 32 pairs of stockings photographed. Southwell states that a lot of what could be called sexism in Loaded is natural, just a joke, he continues 'if some reader takes it as normal conversation then they don't get it and they're never going to get it' .[18] But isn't this the problem?

Those who take these derogatory comments concerning women at face value will think this is normal behaviour and so transfer such attitudes into the real world. Did The Vikings? Lacey believes so, 'whether the distancing effect provided by irony legitimises Loaded , and its ilk, is doubtful; irony appears to be lost on the bog standard 16 year old.' [19] Peter Howorth, the previous editor of darwin natural summary Esquire attempts to justifies the In The A Psychoanalytical Perspective Essay, objectification of women by natural selection, saying 'Any good magazine must offer a balance of where content, and part of that balance, if it is to reflect the interests of men, will inevitable be articles on beautiful women' .[20] This suggests that the magazines are just reflecting the readers interests. Feminists have argued that whatever the psychology of the men who rape, the background to its prevalence must be located in societies which define 'masculinity' at least in natural part, in terms of the assertion of heterosexual power, and which continue to produce images across all forms of representation depicting women as the prototypical object of sexual desire, men as its prototypical subjects.[21] This can be seen in figure 4, where Jordan, merely famous because she is beautiful, is huckleberry finn, seen staring at the viewer in summary a pose which could be seen as soft porn. Segal argues in where teach response that masculine power may be privileged in natural selection our culture, but men are not merely sexual predators, nor women merely sexual prey, and that this view fails to accommodate contradiction and diversity.[22] A further characteristic evident through the style and Catcher Rye: A Psychoanalytical Perspective content of both magazines, and all men's magazines in general, is that they assert the summary, heterosexuality of starry night their readers. Edwards states this is due to the high level of anxiety concerning the possibility of darwin natural selection summary off-putting their heterosexual readers if homosexuality is too overtly or openly condoned.[23]

The magazines stress the virtues of a single lifestyle, as Stevenson et al state 'The great prize of bachelor hood is In The Rye: A Psychoanalytical, represented as a life where one has little responsibility for others and where one is truly free to do as one chooses, further, marriage is viewed as a form of social constraint, preventing men in their early 30's from living a life of consumption and sexual freedom.' [24] This could be seen as merely reflecting society rather than truly advocating single life. Whereas Edwards sites consumption as the darwin natural selection summary, major site of masculinity's in where golding magazines, Sean Nixon believes that it is within the fashion photography that the new coding's of masculinity, and summary there is more than one, are most extensively elaborated.[25] Menswear is seen primarily in terms of utility. Huckleberry Finn Sparknotes? The main example is the suit, both a symbol of darwin selection summary masculine sexuality and a uniform of respectability. GQ focus quite strongly on the suit within its fashion pages. Figure 4 depicts Brett Anderson, the lead singer of suede, modelling Gucci's latest collection. By using Brett as a model it raises the profile of the shoot immediately, and involves an picasso, element of aspiration. In this photograph Anderson is situated in a large, panelled room. Many signifiers within the picture go against darwin natural selection, the 'macho' male mould. Anderson looks introspective and pensive, and the full body shot reveals a vulnerability.

Figure 6is a sharp contrast to the previous photograph, it depicts a fashion shoot titled 'lounging' which featured in Loaded (April, 2000). It depicts casual wear, as opposed to the respectable, working suit featured in GQ . All that is featured of the model is his feet, but he is when vikings, obviously relaxing on darwin natural selection summary a sofa with his feet up, suggesting an untroubled, relaxed man. A Psychoanalytical Perspective Essay? The main element of the photograph is the extreme close up of the women's face on the television screen, her lips are parted and her eyes are closed. It is darwin natural selection, a very sexual face, again highlighting the fact that women are used throughout the starry, magazine, even within fashion shoots, as objects for men to look at, and darwin natural selection summary highlighting the laddish masculinity of the male. Edwards believes that Loaded is when did the live, taken too seriously by those who don't know better. But does the content of Loaded effect its readers? Adorno would argue that such material keeps its audience passive and preserves the natural, dominant of capitalism at the expense of true happiness for the reader. Foucault, would structure his argument around power. In 'The History of Sexuality' he argued that people do not have power implicitly, individuals engage in it. He argues that there is no hierarchical power establishments stating: 'power comes from below; there is guernica, no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and ruled at selection the root of power and serving as a general matrix - no such duality extending from the top down and reaching on where golding teach more and more limited groups to the very depths of the darwin natural, social body'. Did The? [26] (Foucault,1981)

Further, he would argue that the individual person has power to summary resist the media, 'where there is power there is resistance .'[27] This rejects the elitist view of the Frankfurt school, who believed the culture industry had an effect of anti-enlightenment, Adorno asserts 'it impedes the development of autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for did william golding teach themselves.' [28] John Fiske is another theorist who would reject Adorno's notion of a mass negative effect on the audience of mass media, and would see the audience as individuals who read their own meanings into a text. In his work 'Moments of Television' Fiske discusses his theories in relation to television, but these can also be applied to other media. 'Making sense of summary popular television, then, is the process of activating meanings from it, and this process is controlled within more or less determined boundaries by the socially situated viewer. adequate space for different people to make different meaning'.[29] (Fiske, 1989) Further he would reject Adorno's notion of corporations deciding what is In The Perspective Essay, popular culture and stress that popular culture is made by the people for the people. 'It cannot conceive of the text as a site of struggle for the power to make meanings, or of the notion that what finally determines the meanings and natural selection pleasures provoked by a text is the social situation of the huckleberry finn sparknotes, viewer-reader, not the natural selection, interests of the producers and their ideological investment in consumer capitalism.'[30] (Fiske, 1989) It is evident that magazines for guernica analyse young men do include stereotypical images of both men and women. They depict a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the emotional, sensitive male, and darwin natural summary women are depicted as objects for men's contemplation and enjoyment. But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part of film night mass media representation.

Further these magazines are merely trying to entertain the reader, they are not seriously on a crusade to return to a pre-feminist ideal, or to harm anyone in an attempt to provide entertainment. Former editor of Loaded James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about darwin natural selection summary, having the best fucking time of your life.' [31] Further, the inclusion of sexist material and stereotypical images are enjoyable to huckleberry finn sparknotes the reader but are not likely to natural selection change their attitudes towards society. The readers have the power to reject such material and are able to make their own, individual meanings from the messages within men's magazines. Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape for, the heterosexual male. Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998.

Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998. Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in In The Rye: Essay Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) Foucault, M. 'The History of selection summary Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) Kenny, M. and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no.

29, winter 1996, pp. 16-17. Nixon, S. Picasso Guernica Analyse? 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (London, 1996) Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of darwin summary Cultural Studies (London, 2000) Strinati, D. Picasso Guernica? 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) Van Zoonen, L. 'Gender and Media Reception', in Feminist Media Studies (London, 1994)

Jones, D, ed. Darwin Summary? ' GQ ' magazine, April 2000. Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, July 2000. Southwell, T ed. ' Loaded ' magazine, April 2000. [1] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.72. [2] Edwards, T. Guernica Analyse? Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.5. [3] Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.145. [4] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, Winter 1996, pp. 16-17.

[5] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in summary Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.135. [6] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Catcher Rye: Perspective Brooks, K. Darwin Summary? 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of finn Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.377. [7] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J. ed. Darwin Summary? The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.137. [8] Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in analyse Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. [9] Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) p.26. [11] Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) p.89. [12] Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998, p.4. [13] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.379. [14] Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) p.295.

[15] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and darwin natural Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.82. [16] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and where did william Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.74. [17] Gauntlett, D. 'Theory, gender and identity resources - Theodor Adorno' at (accessed: 9 November 2000) [18] Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. [19] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. Darwin? 29, pp. 16-17.

[20] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and golding Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of darwin natural summary Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.376. [21] Segal, L. 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K. Picasso? ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208. [22] Segal, L 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K, ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208. [23] Edwards, T Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and selection Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.75. [24] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of did the Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.378. [25] Nixon, S Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and natural selection summary Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.4.

[26] Foucault, M. Huckleberry Finn? 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) p.166. [28] Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) p.54. [29] Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.58. [30] Fiske, J. Darwin Natural Selection Summary? 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.61. [31] Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. Unfortunately, most of the images from the original essay could not be reproduced here.

This is what they were: Figure 1 GQ interiors 'Keep off the grass' in GQ July 2000. Figure 2 Loaded fashion article 'Picked Pockets' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 3 'The Stockings worldcup' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 4 'Who is Kate Price' article on Jordan in did william Loaded April 2000. Figure 5 GQ fashion spread 'He's in Fashion' in GQ April 2000. Figure 6 Loaded Fashion Spread 'Lounging' in Loaded April 2000.

This essay was written in autumn 2000, when Lucy Brown took the module 'Communications Theory' at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds, UK.