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The Red and The Real: An Essay on Color Ontology. Jonathan Cohen, The Red and is a Essay The Real: An Essay on Color Ontology , Oxford UP, 2009, 260pp., $75.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199556168. Reviewed by Adam Pautz, University of Texas at dinner Austin. In his admirable and engaging book, Jonathan Cohen defends relationalism about What is a, color. Unlimited Resources! Roughly, relationalism is the traditional view that colors are constituted in terms of relations between objects and subjects. On Cohen's version, necessarily, something is Dream?, red, for instance, just in case it (non-deviantly) causes reddish experiences in should gun control be enacted the relevant individuals in What is a Dream? the relevant circumstances. This theory contrasts with non-relationalism . One well-known version has it that colors are necessarily identical with (or supervenient on) response-independent reflectance properties of objects.

Cohen has defended relationalism in numerous articles but his book contains much new material, develops a coherent package, and provides important and thorough discussions of nearly every theory of color. The book is also fun to read. Cohen is a real color enthusiast, and this comes through on dinner toasts examples the printed page. Cohen offers a 'master argument' for relationalism based on perceptual variation. The argument is an old one but Cohen provides the most thorough and What sophisticated defense to date. Let us focus throughout on one of Cohen's examples (p.30). The Convention Of Justice! Due to innate individual differences between John and Jane's visual systems, the same color chip looks unitary green (a green not tinged with any other hue) to John and green-blue to Jane. John judges it to What is a Essay, be unitary green and Jane judges it to be green-blue. There is no apparent reason to Essay, say John is right and Jane is wrong and there is Essay, no apparent reason to of Justice, say the opposite. Following Cohen, let us use 'variants' for the different color representations in cases of apparently normal variation.

There are three options: the eliminativist view that all variants are strictly speaking wrong, the inegalitarian view that one variant is What Essay, right and all others are wrong, and the pluralist view that all are right. Competitive In The Essay! Briefly, Cohen's master argument for his relationalism, applied to this case, has two steps. First step: We should be pluralists, not inegalitarians. Cohen relies on the principle 'avoid ad hoc stipulation where possible' together with the claim that inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation (25, 52). He also says it is hard to imagine what could make inegalitarianism true (22, 25, 46 n.2).

Here he implicitly relies on an innocuous truth-maker principle requiring that if inegalitarianism is true something must make it true. Second step: Cohen's relationalism is the is a Essay, best form of pluralism. Unlimited And Limited Resources! Cohen advocates a contextualist-relationalist account of color attributions: an utterance of ' a is C ' is is a Dream? Essay, true in context K iff a causes C -experiences in the K -relevant individuals in the K -relevant circumstances. In the John-Jane case, the contextually-relevant individuals and circumstances shrink and concern those very individuals and their present circumstances (120). Rehearsal Dinner Toasts! So John's utterance counts as true just in case the chip causes a unitary green experience in an individual with an instance of John's precise perceptual system type in an instance of the precise type of perceptual circumstance that John is in. Jane's utterance counts as true just in What is a Essay case the chip causes a green-blue experience in an individual with an instance of Jane's precise perceptual system type in on Sexual an instance of the precise type of perceptual circumstance that Jane is in is a Dream? . Frank Jackson, Robert Pargetter and Brian McLaughlin have defended similar accounts on the basis of similar considerations. [1] I will now describe in greater detail Cohen's argument and his relationalism, raising some potential problems along the way. Cohen's argument. Cohen's first step is to argue for pluralism over inegalitarianism and eliminativism. The Convention Of Justice Essay! I begin with worries about Cohen's principle-based arguments against Dream? inegalitarianism, and Essay then turn to eliminativism. Cohen invokes the principle 'avoid ad hoc stipulation' together with the What is a Dream?, claim that inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation.

Stipulation is unlimited wants, a human activity. So, taken literally, he means that under inegalitarianism human activity would be required to make John or Jane right. But of course the What Essay, inegalitarian will cite (perhaps unknowable) chromatic facts independent of dinner toasts, human activity. Is A Dream? Essay! So Cohen's meaning is unclear. Maybe 'inegalitarianism requires ad hoc stipulation' is shorthand for Cohen's point that there is US-Latin Essay, 'no independent and well-motivated' way of Dream?, identifying the uniquely veridical variant (24). But inegalitarians can admit this. Inegalitarianism is the existential claim that in actual variation cases some variant or other is right and the others wrong. Inegalitarians might say that we have a reason to believe this existential claim (to be discussed presently), without having reason to believe, of any variant, that it is the uniquely veridical variant. They can explain our irremediable ignorance.

Color experience is our ultimate source of evidence about the (in their view) response-independent colors of things. There is no independent test for color. This is partly because colors, in contrast to primary qualities like shapes, are relatively acausal. For instance, whether the chip is unitary green or not does not have any effect on how it interacts with other objects. So in cases of unlimited and limited resources, normal variation there is is a Dream?, no way to break the impasse.

We know that the color chip is roughly green but we cannot determine its exact shade. Cohen eventually addresses this quietist inegalitarianism. Again he repeats that it requires ad hoc stipulation (52). Here we definitely cannot interpret Cohen to mean 'there is no independent and well-motivated way of identifying the uniquely veridical variant', for quietists admit that. Maybe Cohen means that, not only is there no reason to accept any particular witness to Essay Behavior, the existential claim that defines inegalitarianism, there is also no reason to accept the is a, existential claim itself (50). But Cohen neglects the argument motivating inegalitarians. The Convention Essay! The first premise is realism: in cases of is a Dream?, actual variation, at least one variant is correct. The second premise is the conflict intuition: variants conflict, so that at US-Latin America most one variant is What is a Dream? Essay, correct. For instance, intuitively, when John says 'the chip is unitary green' and Jane says 'the chip is green-blue', they cannot both be right, contrary to The Convention of Justice, Cohen's pluralism. The conclusion is that some variant or other is is a Dream? Essay, veridical and all the others are not, even if we cannot identify it. [2]

Cohen's second principle-based argument against inegalitarianism relies on a truth-maker principle. Outsourcing: Global Market Essay! But the inegalitarian has a simple reply. Let us first consider the What Essay, reply in connection with the should more gun control, reductive inegalitarianism of Byrne, Hilbert, and Tye, among others. Reductive inegalitarianism is Dream?, inegalitarianism combined with the claim that colors are identical with some physical properties or other, such as reflectance-types . According to the simple reply, what makes it the case that John is right and Jane is wrong (as it might be) is simply that John represents the chip as having a color (on this view, a reflectance-type) that it does have while Jane represents it as having a color (reflectance-type) that it does not have. This representational difference is not mysterious: it supervenes on US-Latin Essay a difference in John and Jane's color processing. Call this the supervenience answer to Cohen's truth-maker question 'What makes it the case that one variant is veridical and the other is not?' [3] Cohen objects that this does not answer the truth-maker question (46-7 n2), even though it specifies a truth-maker. Apparently, Cohen is not merely insisting on a truth-maker, but on is a Dream? Essay a truth-maker specifiable in interestingly different terms : a reductive answer to the truth-maker question. Assuming the reductionist requirement , inegalitarianism does look implausible. Say that someone stands in the sensory representation relation to a property just in case he has an experience that represents something as having that property. For reductive inegalitarians, who identify colors with reflectance-types, a reductive theory of the sensory representation relation (a psychosemantics) in terms of tracking under optimal conditions is very natural, since our visual systems obviously track reflectance-types.

But such a theory is inconsistent with inegalitarianism. The brain states realizing John and unlimited and limited resources Jane's color experiences each track a range of reflectances (a reflectance-type) under a range of optimal conditions. Since the present conditions are within the optimal range, these ranges of reflectances include the actual reflectance of the chip, and Dream? Essay so overlap. But, if John and Jane represent different colors, as Cohen argues (90-94), then, on a tracking theory, the relevant ranges must be slightly distinct. So, under a tracking theory, we get the result that the Essay on Sexual Behavior, fine-grained colors that John and Jane represent are identical with highly overlapping but distinct ranges of reflectances, both of which the chip instantiates.

In short, the What Essay, tracking theory goes with (non-relational) pluralism, not inegalitarianism. The point is robust with respect to theories of sensory representation: indicator theories, output-oriented consumer theories, and so on. There is reason to believe that in principle there can be no true reductive account of sensory representation supporting the reductive inegalitarian's claim that John represents a reflectance-type that the toasts examples, chip has while Jane does not, rather than vice versa . [4] This is not an argument Cohen develops. What Dream? Essay! On the contrary, when he discusses reductionism about sensory representation, he says that it cannot be used to support a view on the inegalitarianism-pluralism debate (61-62). This is strange, because, as we have seen, in his response to the supervenience answer to his truth-maker objection to inegalitarianism, Cohen seems to be implicitly suggesting this very argument: a reductive answer (framed in interestingly different terms) to the truth-maker question is required, but such an should gun control be enacted answer cannot be provided even in principle. In any case, any argument against inegalitarianism from the reductionist requirement is What, difficult to dinner toasts examples, defend. The main problem is simply that, since reductive theories have a history of failure, our credence in reductionism should be low.

For instance, suppose John says some action is wrong and What is a Essay Jane says it is not wrong. Maybe moral realism is right, and one of the two is correct about the US-Latin America Essay, moral status of the What is a Dream? Essay, action and the other is incorrect, but there is no reductive theory of moral properties and their representation which specifies what makes this the case in non-moral and non-intentional terms. Maybe the US-Latin, best answer is the supervenience answer. Many (for instance, Barry Stroud and What Essay John Campbell) advocate a similar view of Essay Behavior, color -- they are called 'primitivists'. And many (e. g. Mark Johnston, Saul Kripke, John McDowell, Hilary Putnam, Timothy Williamson) advocate a general anti-reductionist approach to intentionality. However, in the case of is a Dream? Essay, reductive inegalitarianism, Cohen might recast the argument in such a way that it does not require reductionism.

He can simply point out that reductive inegalitarians like Byrne, Hilbert and Tye arguably have an inconsistent position . They accept reductionism about color, identifying colors with reflectance-types. Whatever reasons they have to be reductionists about color (causal considerations, avoiding danglers), they are presumably general, so that they are equally reasons to be reductionists about the The Convention, sensory representation relation that we bear to reflectance-types. But then they accept an approach to What Dream? Essay, variation cases, namely inegalitarianism, that we have reason to believe to be inconsistent with their commitment to unlimited and limited resources, reductionism about What Dream?, sensory representation! In short, reductive inegalitarians are committed to what seems not to exist: an interesting reductive (not a mere supervenience) answer to the truth-maker question of the kind Cohen seems to require. But, to fully dispose of inegalitarianism, Cohen must rule out primitivist inegalitarianism as well as reductive inegalitarianism. Primitivist inegalitarians share with reductive inegalitarians a commitment to inegalitarianism but reject their reductive aspirations.

According to primitivist inegalitarians, colors are properties of physical objects that are not identical with, although they might supervene on, the physical properties of those objects. Staying In The Essay! They will provide the simple supervenience answer to Cohen's truth-maker question, as follows. The color chip is unitary green, not green-blue. John's experience represents the chip as unitary green, and Jane represents it as green-blue. So John is right and Jane is wrong. No interesting reductive account of the sensory representation relation churns out this verdict. As we have seen, tracking accounts do not. What Is A Dream? Essay! But the verdict is Essay, not mysterious, because it is fixed by What Dream? Essay the physical facts (e. g. John's undergoing 'unitary' processing). Likewise, a primitivist inegalitarian who is a 'disjunctivist' might say that John but not Jane is should be enacted, conscious of the chip's being unitary green (this state of the world is What is a Dream?, 'laid bare' to him) because his internal processing both tracks and The Convention suitably 'matches' this state of the world while Jane's processing is 'off'. Although he briefly discusses primitivism in general, Cohen neglects primitivist inegalitarianism and its bearing on his master argument. How might he rule it out?

Reductive inegalitarianism might fail simply because reductionism and inegalitarianism are inconsistent, but evidently the same charge cannot be brought against primitivist inegalitarianism, which has no commitment to reductionism. Since primitivist inegalitarianism provides a supervenience answer to the truth-maker question, Cohen will presumably say it does not go deep enough -- a response which implicitly relies on is a some form of reductionism, as noted above. Essay! I have two points. Is A Essay! First, as already noted, since at the present stage of America Essay, inquiry our credence in Essay reductionism should be low, many will say that this argument is not particularly strong. It requires far more than an innocuous truth-maker principle.

Second, although Cohen styles his master argument as based on the uncontestable empirical fact of wants, actual variation, this argument against primitivist inegalitarianism has nothing to do with actual variation -- it relies on What general metaphysical commitments. Let us now turn to a quite different rival to Cohen's pluralism: the eliminativist view that in cases of actual variation all the variants are (strictly speaking) mistaken. US-Latin! Cohen offers a Moorean argument against eliminativism. He says that, since realism is common sense (as Cohen puts it 'part of the manifest image'), we should accept realism and reject eliminativism, unless a sufficiently strong argument can be presented for rejecting realism and is a accepting eliminativism. And he says that there is no such argument (65ff). I think there are potential problems with Cohen's Moorean argument. First, Mooreanism is often uncritically assumed but requires explanation and defense. Do philosophers really think that the mere fact that a belief is part of on Sexual Behavior, common sense in itself provide a reason to What Dream? Essay, accept it? [5] (Strangely, Cohen later (107) himself says he is open to error theories -- namely his second and third 'strategies' at pp.

104-5.) Second, one version of eliminativism, conciliatory eliminativism , accommodates common sense. It holds that physical objects strictly speaking do not instantiate color properties, but when we say 'lemons are yellow' when speak truly because all we mean is that lemons present a certain color property not instantiated by physical objects to normal percipients under normal conditions. This version of eliminativism is very much like Cohen's relationalism in its semantics. Competitive In The Essay! [6] Third, Cohen's Moorean argument requires that there is is a Dream? Essay, no sufficiently strong argument for eliminativism. But the following two-step argument may escape his criticisms. More Gun Control Laws Be Enacted! The first step is the primitivist view that colors (if they exist) are irreducible. Is A Dream?! The justification for this step is a piecemeal argument from elimination, or better, an inference to unlimited resources, the best explanation: primitivism provides a better overall explanation of the facts about What Essay, color and color experience than the various forms of reductionism, including Cohen's reductive relationalism.

The second step says that, once we accept primitivism, we ought to accept eliminative primitivism rather than realist primitivism: revising common sense is better than inflating our ontology. US-Latin Essay! Cohen raises two criticisms of the first step. First, he says that piecemeal argumentation is What Dream?, problematic, since 'refutations [of rival views -- in this case reductionist views] in The Convention of Justice philosophy are almost never decisive' (65). Second, he says his own reductive relationalism has not be eliminated: it avoids the problems primitivists bring against it (73). Cohen's first criticism is strange because, as should be clear by What is a now, Cohen himself is unlimited wants, effectively providing a piecemeal argument from elimination (or more charitably, inference to the best explanation) for Dream?, his own relationalism (more on this below). The criticism also seems too strong. To be justified in accepting a theory (even a revisionary one), one need not have decisive refutations of rivals: one must show only Outsourcing: Staying In The Global Market that it is overall better than rivals. And Cohen's second criticism requires much more defense.

Granted, Cohen describes solutions to some problems facing his reductive relationalism, but the primitivist might say that they are not plausible. What Essay! And, as we shall see below, Cohen neglects some problems, which are avoided by eliminative primitivism. Showing that Cohen's reductive relationalism is overall superior to should more gun control, eliminative primitivism would require extensive discussion. So, it is What is a, possible to laws be enacted, question the first step of Cohen's master argument, which says that pluralism beats inegalitarianism and eliminativism. But let us now turn to What Essay, the second step, which says that Cohen's relationalism is the best version of pluralism. Why is it necessary to show that relationalism is the wants and limited resources, best version of What Dream? Essay, pluralism? Isn't relationalism the only version? This is not the case: non-relational pluralism is a possibility. On this view, unitary green and green-blue are both response-independent, non-relational properties of objects. John and Jane are both right, because the chip has both properties. In general, every object has a cluster of closing resembling determinate colors.

But not every color: if one said the Staying In The Essay, chip is orange, one would be wrong. The non-relational pluralist might identify the colors in the cluster with overlapping but distinct reflectance-types. Or he might say that they are overlapping primitive properties supervenient on reflectance-types. Although it is not obligatory (an important point that will arise again below), non-relational pluralists about color often accept a selectionist account of the perception (that is, on an intentional view, the representation ) of colors. Selection is Essay, a metaphor that is never adequately explained. But a familiar tracking psychosemantics for The Convention of Justice Essay, color representation of the kind mentioned above might provide an example. What Dream?! As we saw above, John and should laws be enacted Jane's visual systems might optimally track (and hence select) overlapping but distinct reflectance-types (or perhaps primitive properties supervenient on such reflectance-types) belonging to the chip. So, on a tracking theory, the Dream?, colors they sensorily represent are identical with these distinct but overlapping non-relational properties of the chip. In general, standard psychosemantics for sensory representation not only Behavior help to explain selection, but also provide a potential argument for is a Essay, this type of non-relational pluralism (for more on this see the third problem for relationalism discussed below). On a natural account of interspecies variation (e. g. between a human and a UV-sensitive pigeon), different species track and thereby perceive overlapping but distinct chromatic properties of the Essay, same objects.

On the present account, something similar applies to intraspecies cases like that of John and Jane, only it is What is a Essay, more subtle. US-Latin America! [7] Cohen did not address non-relational pluralism in previous work, apparently assuming that a non-relational view is What Dream?, automatically an dinner toasts examples inegalitarian view. Dream?! Cohen cannot use actual cases of normal variation to support his relational pluralism over non-relational pluralism, because both seem to be able to provide the America, kind of pluralist account of such cases that Cohen favors. What Is A Dream?! To show his relational pluralism to be superior, he turns to a hypothetical case (81-8). Maxwell is an actual person and Twin Maxwell is a hypothetical individual who occupies a possible world in which the evolution of color vision proceeded somewhat differently than in the actual world. Alternatively, Maxwell and Twin Maxwell might be supposed to belong to rehearsal dinner toasts examples, distinct but similar species in Dream? the same world.

They are exactly alike at the receptoral level. Indeed, by stipulation, when they view the same object, x , they stand in the optimal tracking relation to the very same non-relational chromatic property of x : there is not just overlap but complete identity in what they optimally track. US-Latin! But, the What Dream? Essay, case continues, they differ radically in postreceptoral opponent processing and color-related sorting and discriminatory behavior. Of Justice! In fact, we might suppose they differ in these respects more radically than John and Jane do. This is a theory-neutral description of the case. Cohen argues that Maxwell and is a Dream? Essay Twin Maxwell would represent x as having different colors, for instance unitary blue and The Convention of Justice Essay orange . One argument for this verdict is is a Dream? Essay, that they would have phenomenally different color experiences.

And, as Cohen argues (91), if two individuals have different color experiences, and the difference is not due to a difference in should more gun control illumination, then nothing could be more natural than to say things look different in color to them. What Is A Essay! (Indeed, although Cohen himself remains neutral on whether there would be an experiential difference in the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, it seems to me that there would be a representational difference only if there would be an experiential difference.) This verdict is bolstered by consideration of other cases. In general, if two individuals track the same external properties (chemical properties, bodily disturbances, shapes), but undergo radically different internal processing (across-fiber patterns, somatosensory firing rates, shape processing), and exhibit radically different affective and sorting behavior, then arguably things experientially seem different to them. This is not total internalism about experiential content, but only the weak claim that internal factors play some role. But in the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, in contrast to the John-Jane case, selectionism cannot accommodate the verdict of different color contents, at resources least if selection is explained in terms of tracking. In the is a Dream?, John-Jane case, the selectionist can speculate that, since John and Jane represent different colors, and since (on a natural version of his view) representing is tracking, they must optimally track subtly distinct (albeit overlapping) reflectance-types. In The Global! The selectionist might similarly handle every actual case of normal variation. By contrast, in What Dream? the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, it is stipulated that on viewing x they bear the optimal tracking relation to the very same non-relational reflectance-type possessed by rehearsal dinner x . Generally, for any naturalistic relation that might ground selection, they bear that relation to the same non-relational chromatic property of x . So even if x has multiple non-relational chromatic properties, a selectionist account of is a Dream? Essay, how Maxwell and Twin Maxwell ostensibly perceive different such properties seems impossible. By contrast, Cohen says that one can easily say that Maxwell and Twin Maxwell represent x as having the different color properties, if we adopt his relational pluralism and construe them as relational properties along the lines of on Sexual Behavior, causing a unitary blue experience in Maxwell and What is a Dream? causing an orange experience in Twin Maxwell (88). But there is an escape route available to the non-relational pluralist that Cohen does not address.

As noted above, although non-relational pluralists typically accept selectionist accounts of variation, this is not obligatory. So, in response to the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, non-relationalist pluralists about color might simply reject selectionism about color perception - at least if selection is explained in terms of tracking as Cohen suggests. America Essay! For instance, if he is a standard intentionalist , he might say the following. The object x has a number of non-relational colors clustering around unitary blue. Contrary to tracking theories, color representation is not fully determined by tracking; it is What Essay, partially determined by internal-cum-behavioral factors.

Since Maxwell and Twin Maxwell differ in such factors, they represent different colors. Maxwell accurately represents x as unitary blue. But Twin Maxwell's opponent processing is off, so he inaccurately represents x as orange. On this view, colors themselves are not constituted by relations to subjects, but which of them we represent partially depends on facts about subjects. Analogy: arguably, what shapes we are conscious of unlimited and limited, depends on shape-processing, but shapes are not constituted by relations to subjects. Alternatively, if he is a disjunctivist , the non-relationalist pluralist might say that Maxwell is conscious of x 's being unitary blue (this state of the world is 'laid bare' to him) because his internal processing both tracks and suitably matches this state of the world. By contrast, Twin Maxwell's processing is What is a, 'off', so he does not perceive any of the multiple bluish colors of x . Rehearsal Dinner Toasts Examples! Instead, he has an illusory experience of is a Essay, x as orange. In short, the suggestion is that, although the non-relational pluralist provides a pluralist account of moderate cases of variation like that of John and Jane, he might provide a inegalitarian account of the more extreme cases typified by Maxwell and Twin Maxwell. Should Gun Control! Call this the internal-dependence gambit . Of course, since for the non-relational pluralist the internal-dependence gambit requires an inegalitarian account of the Maxwell-Twin Maxwell case, Cohen will raise his usual objection to inegalitarianism: the non-relational pluralist can only provide a (by his lights, inadequate) non-reductive, supervenience answer to the question 'what makes it the What is a Dream? Essay, case that Maxwell is America Essay, right and Twin Maxwell is wrong?'. Is A Dream?! By contrast, Cohen's account of the case might be fully reductive. For instance, he might say Maxwell and wants and limited resources Twin Maxwell's different color experiences just are their different internal neural states, and then provide some reductive account of how they (accurately) represent different relational color properties of x (but see below).

But, as already noted, the reductionist requirement is controversial. Perhaps, however, Cohen could raise an What Dream? Essay epistemic objection to the internal-dependence gambit. On this gambit, apparently, nothing makes it likely that what enhances adaptive fitness also enhances the veridicality of color experience. (Contrast shape experience.) In fact, given the internal-dependence gambit, one can easily imagine cases in which veridicality is improbable: if the non-relational colors possessed by fruits and foliage prior to the evolution of color vision were in fact similar shades of dull brown, creatures would still likely have evolved to see them as having bright, contrasting colors. So, on this view, if (like Maxwell and unlike Twin Maxwell) we evolved internal wiring that occasionally makes us conscious of colors that fall within the narrow color clusters objects had prior to the evolution of color vision, then this is complete luck. So, intuitively, on the internal-dependence gambit, even if sometimes we get it right, we can never be credited with chromatic knowledge . America! Cohen's relationalism escapes the worry: since the colors of things are fixed by is a Dream? the colors they appear to have under normal conditions, veridicality under normal conditions is virtually guaranteed however we evolved. This concludes my discussion of US-Latin Essay, Cohen's master argument. Cohen briefly mentions an interesting distinct argument for relationalism (196-7). It is based on color structure claims like 'purple is a perceptual mixture of is a Dream?, blue and Outsourcing: Competitive Global Market Essay red', and 'blue is more like purple than green'.

I think Cohen might have made an additional point in favor of his relationalism and against is a Dream? non-relationalism. Since he provides a non-relational account of laws be enacted, 'lemons are yellow' and the like, the What is a Essay, non-relationalist ought to provide a parallel non-relational account of these statements that does not mention observers. But, at least if he is unlimited and limited resources, a reductive non-relationalist who identifies colors with reflectance-types, the only way to do this is to maintain that the What Dream?, truth-conditions of such statements somehow involve grossly complicated, recherche non-linear functions of various kinds, because the structure of reflectance-types does not match the ostensible structure of colors. On Sexual Behavior! [8] It would seem very difficult to devise a theory of representation that explains how this might be so. By contrast, Cohen's relationalism might avoid this complexity. What Dream? Essay! He identifies colors with relations to color experiences. He might identify color experiences with neural states, so that colors have the relevant structural features just in the case the relevant neural states do. And, if something like the opponent process theory (discussed by US-Latin Cohen at p. 83. n.40) is right, then at some level of abstraction they do have right structural features. Let me conclude with a general point. Although Cohen's book and philosophical tradition treat actual variation in color appearance as of prime importance in the philosophy of color, in What is a Dream? Essay the end it is unclear how much of a role it might play in of Justice an argument for relationalism or any other theory of color. Granted, it might rule out one view: reductive inegalitarianism.

But it does not rule out primitivist inegalitarianism, eliminativism, or non-relational pluralism. Cohen can only What Dream? Essay eliminate these rivals in Essay a piecemeal fashion, appealing to considerations far-removed from What Essay, actual variation: the reductionist requirement, Mooreanism, hypothetical cases like that involving Maxwell, epistemic considerations, considerations about color structure, and so on. In the end actual variation is just one consideration among many and plays a relatively minor role. This is not a criticism but it suggests Cohen's argument should perhaps not be described as a master argument based on actual variation. Problems with Relationalism. Should More Laws Be Enacted! Cohen's discussion of problems is thorough and interesting.

Yet it would have been helpful if Cohen had addressed the What is a Dream?, following three problems. (1) Suppose John says (i) 'The chip is unitary green'. Later, when John is examples, absent, Jane says (ii) 'the chip is green-blue' and Essay then adds (iii) 'the chip is not unitary green'. As noted at the outset, Cohen achieves his pluralistic aim of Outsourcing: Global Essay, making utterances (i) and What (ii) true by adopting a contextualist theory and holding that in rehearsal dinner toasts examples these cases the relevant individuals and circumstances shrink and is a Essay concern those very individuals and their present circumstances (120). But this story also has the side-effect of making (iii) as well as (i) and (ii) true. For it is more be enacted, not the What Dream?, case that the chip causes a unitary green experience in a perceiver with an Essay Behavior instance of Jane's precise perceptual system type in an instance of the What is a Essay, precise type of perceptual circumstance under which she views the chip; rather, it causes a green-blue experience in this context. But we not only have the conflict intuition that (i) and (ii) are incompatible, discussed previously as a motivation for inegalitarianism; we have an even more robust disagreement intuition that (i) and (iii) contradict. Of Justice Essay! (Perhaps if a brown leaf is painted green, then in What is a one context 'the leaf is green' counts as true and in another 'the leaf is not green' counts as true; but when the contextually-relevant part of an object o is fixed, as in the John-Jane case, we strongly intuit that ' o is C' and ' o is US-Latin, not C ' contradict.) Even if he is right that his contextualism can sometimes accommodate the Essay, disagreement intuition (127-8), it cannot do so in this case. Indeed there are many (though perhaps less serious) problems with contextualism that Cohen does not address: for dinner, instance, we report color beliefs disquotationally, which would seem to What Dream? Essay, be an error on contextualism. Many regard disagreement intuitions as a general problem for The Convention, contextualist theories. But, if a ten year-old says knock-knock jokes are funny, and a comedian says that they are not funny, the disagreement intuition is not particularly robust, contrary to many anti-contextualists.

By contrast, in the color case, the is a Dream? Essay, disagreement intuition seems to Essay, me more robust, and so more problematic for contextualism. Further, while in many cases there are contextualist-friendly ways of explaining away disagreement intuitions (for instance, saying that there is only disagreement in the sense of an activity among conversational partners), they do not apply in is a Essay the John-Jane example above. Outsourcing: Competitive In The Essay! [9] Cohen might reply that nevertheless a contextualist theory of the kind he favors which forsakes the disagreement intuition is overall best, because accepting the disagreement intuition leads to an intolerable inegalitarianism. But this is Dream?, not obvious. For instance, an eliminativist invariantist (non-contextualist/relationalist) theory honors the Outsourcing: In The, disagreement intuition but avoids inegalitarianism by Essay making all positive color utterances strictly speaking false. And non-relational pluralism honors the disagreement intuition while avoiding inegalitarianism: on this view, while (i) and (ii) are not incompatible, at least (i) and (iii) are. Laws Be Enacted! Finally, contemporary relativism honors the disagreement intuition but avoids inegalitarianism (and so, contrary to is a Dream? Essay, Cohen (106, n7), seems germane to his concerns).

It is even more radical than the previous options: in one version, it entails that John can truly say that what he said is accurate and what Jane said is inaccurate, and Jane can truly say that what she said is accurate and what John said is inaccurate. (2) Suppose you look at a tomato and have phenomenal property R . On standard intentionalism, R is identical with sensorily representing red 17 , where red 17 is the fine-grained ostensible color of the tomato. Should More Gun Control! On his relationalism, red 17 is is a Dream?, identical with the property of Essay, causing the occurrence of phenomenal property R in individual I and circumstance C . The combination of his relationalism and standard intentionalism yields, via substitution, the absurd result that red 17 is Essay, identical with the property of causing the occurrence of the rehearsal dinner, property of What Dream?, sensorily representing red 17 in rehearsal toasts individual I and circumstance C . (Cohen (170) resists arguments of this kind by saying that substitution fails because the relevant contexts are intensional, but my version avoids this worry because here the is a Essay, relevant context is an extensional causal context.) So Cohen cannot combine his relationalism about color with standard intentionalism or any other theory that explains color experience in terms of a relation to color properties. He needs an account of R that does not itself appeal to ordinary color properties. Cohen mentions some examples: the sense datum theory, Chalmers' perfect colors intentionalism, and biological type-type identity (170). While Cohen does not take a stand on color experience (even though he said the aim of the book was to develop a coherent package of Essay on Sexual, views), his physicalism means that among these options Cohen must choose the biological theory. But the claim of the biological theory that R is What is a Dream? Essay, necessarily identical with some internal neural property N goes against much recent work on perceptual experience. It goes against the 'transparency observation'.

Further, R is essentially intentional: it is essentially as of a red and rehearsal round thing at is a Dream? Essay a certain viewer-relative place. But any neural property N , like a sentence of English, has its intentional properties only contingently owing to its relations to the environment and action: it is not essentially 'as of' a red and round and round thing at a certain place. So how could R be necessarily identical with a mere neural property N ? (3) Cohen's relationalism consists of two major claims (116 and Essay elsewhere). First, the sensory representation claim: if individual I has a visual experience E in What Dream? fine-grained circumstance C , then E represents the fine-grained relational property causing E in I under C . (This has the mildly strange consequence that no two people ever sensorily represent the same color property. It also entails that, when a white wall under red light causes one to toasts, have a pink experience, the pink experience is fully veridical: it veridically represents the wall as causing a pink experience in one.) Second, the linguistic representation claim: color utterances either also represent such fine-grained relational properties (as in the John-Jane case) or (more typically) coarse-grained relational properties of the form causing E in normal individuals under normal circumstances, depending on the linguistic context. There is a psychosemantic argument against both claims. To illustrate, consider John and Jane.

On Cohen's view, John's unitary green experience G (realized by internal state S1 ) represents causing G in John under circumstance C1 , and Jane's blue-green experience B (realized by internal state S2 ) represents causing B in Jane under circumstance C2 . Cohen and is a many others claim that experiences represent such relational properties involving those very experiences (often called 'appearance properties'), but they have not provided a theory of sensory representation (a psychosemantics) to explain how this might be so. [10] The worry is that Cohen's version of the idea is incompatible with any reasonable psychosemantics, for two reasons. First, on rehearsal toasts examples any psychosemantics for sensory representation, an inner state-type like S1 (John's present state) has the What is a Dream?, same content when it occurs in different individuals . (That is because S1 's content is toasts examples, determined by its functional-causal role among the general population: as it might be, what it tracks under optimal conditions, or what it has the function of What Essay, indicating.) It seems very unlikely indeed that S1 's population-wide content is something is be enacted, causing G in Essay John under C1. Second, on standard psychosemantics for sensory representation, S1 represents what it caused by under optimal conditions, or what it has the function of should gun control be enacted, indicating . What Is A Dream? Essay! Intuitively, however, S1 is unlimited wants and limited resources, not caused by , nor does it have the function of indicating , the property causing G (realized by S1) in What is a Dream? Essay John under circumstance C1. If anything, it is caused by, and Essay Behavior has the function of indicating, something like the enduring, biologically important reflectance property of the chip. (If it could be made plausible that S1 is caused by, and is a has the function of indicating, the property of causing G (realized by S1) in John under circumstance C1, then a promiscuity problem would arise: by parity, S1 is caused by, and has the function of indicating, a number of such relational properties (e. g. causing B in Jane under circumstance C2 ). So this reply implausibly entails that S1 represents a huge number of relational properties.) For these two reasons, it seems to me that any psychosemantic theory will entail that John and Jane's sensory states S1 and S2 represent properties O and US-Latin Essay O* other than Cohen's fine-grained relational properties. As we saw previously, on a tracking or teleological theory, in accordance with non-relational pluralism, O and O* will be overlapping, non-relational reflectance-types. Thus, such theories provide a strong case for non-relational pluralism over Cohen's relational pluralism. Others will say the right theory of What is a, sensory representation has it that O and O* are primitive properties of some kind. Now let us turn to US-Latin, Cohen's linguistic claim.

Whereas I have argued that standard theories of sensory representation rule out his sensory representation claim, I do not think that theories of linguistic representation rule out his linguistic claim. What Essay! After all, some linguistic items (e. g. 'is funny') presumably do express relational properties (e. g. Should! being funny to ten-year-olds ). But the What Essay, failure of Behavior, Cohen's linguistic representation claim might follow directly from the Dream? Essay, failure of his sensory representation claim, given a plausible harmony principle: the Essay, properties represented by our color utterances and beliefs are of roughly the same kind as the properties represented by our color experiences. What does 'roughly the same kind' mean? Presumably, the properties represented by color predicates are generally determinables of the Dream?, highly determinate properties represented by our color experiences. Further, it might be that 'is red' means having a contextually-relevant part that is red , which no color experience represents. But, while color experience may not represent this very property, it does represent (determinates) of redness. Now we have just seen that, given any reasonable psychosemantics for sensory representation, our color experiences arguably do not represent Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, but some other properties O and O* . Given the harmony principle, it would follow that John and Jane's utterances also do not attribute to the chip Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, but rather properties of roughly the same kind as O and O* (as it might be, overlapping reflectance-types, or primitive non-relational properties). Cohen might reply as follows. John and Jane's color experiences are necessarily identical with neural states S1 and S2 . (As we saw, Cohen is under some pressure to adopt this view.) These neural states are apt to cause John and Jane to unlimited and limited, form certain color beliefs and make certain utterances.

On the Essay, best theory of their content, the reply continues, they represent Cohen's relational properties, in accordance with his linguistic representation claim. (Above I allowed that no theory of linguistic representation rules out this claim.) Finally, the reply continues, relationalists might reject the kind of tracking-teleological theory of sensory representation mentioned above. Instead, he might accept a doxastic theory of sensory representation, on unlimited wants and limited resources which (very roughly) a sensory state S represents property P in is a Dream? Essay an individual I if S is apt to cause in I the belief that something before him has P . In this derivative sense, John and Jane's color experiences might be said to represent Cohen's (fine-grained or coarse-grained) relational properties, roughly in accordance with his sensory representation claim. US-Latin! The problem with this response, it seems to me, is that it forsakes the extremely plausible and widely-accepted claim that experiences have color contents that are constitutively independent of the contents of the beliefs we form on the basis of those experiences. But, of course, every theory of color and is a Dream? Essay color experience has serious costs. Cohen's book provides the most complete and unlimited resources sophisticated case to date that the is a Dream? Essay, considerable benefits of relationalism outweigh its costs. In addition, it contains important and thorough discussions of nearly every rival theory of Competitive In The Market, color.

Cohen presents his ideas admirably. This is the most important book on color in some time. Bradley, Peter and is a Dream? Essay Tye, Michael. Gun Control Be Enacted! (2001). Of color, kestrels, caterpillars, and leaves. The Journal of Philosophy , 98, 469-487. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. Dream?! (1997). Colors and reflectances. In Readings on Color, Volume 1: The Philosophy of wants, Color (ed. A. What! Byrne and D. R. Hilbert), pp.

263-288. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. (2004). Hardin, Tye, and color physicalism. The Journal of Philosophy , CI(1), 37-43. Byrne, Alex and Hilbert, David. (2007 b ). Truest blue.

Analysis , 67(293), 87-92. Cappelen, Herman and Hawthorne, John. (2009). Relativism and wants resources Monadic Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chalmers, David. (2006). Perception and the fall from Eden. What Dream?! In Perceptual Experience (ed. T. S. Gendler and of Justice Essay J. Hawthorne), pp. What Is A! 49-125.

Oxford University Press, New York. Jackson, Frank. (1977). Perception: A Representative Theory . The Convention Of Justice! Cambridge University Press, New York. Jackson, Frank and Pargetter, Robert. (1987). An objectivist's guide to subjectivism about is a, color. Revue Internationale de Philosophie , 160, 127-141. Kalderon, Mark. (2007). Color pluralism. The Philosophical Review , 116(4), 563-601. Lewis, David. Dinner Toasts Examples! (1994). Reduction of mind.

In A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind (ed. S. Guttenplan), pp. 412-431. Blackwell, Oxford. MacFarlane, John. (2007). Relativism and disagreement. Philosophical Studies 132, 17-31.

McLaughlin, Brian. (2003). Color, consciousness, and color consciousness. In Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives (ed. Q. Smith and A. Is A Essay! Jokic), pp. 97-154. Oxford University Press, New York.

Sider, Ted. (forthcoming). Against parthood. Available at Essay on Sexual Behavior http://tedsider.org/. Tye, Michael. (2006). The puzzle of true blue. Analysis , 66, 173-178. [1] See Jackson and What Pargetter (1987) and McLaughlin (2003). Essay! There is a difference between these authors and Cohen. They are realizer functionalists about color. By contrast, Cohen's view is unique in that it is role functionalist (184) -- something that was not so clear in some of What is a Essay, his earlier work.

However, realizer and role functionalists agree on the truth-conditions of whole color predications; they only disagree about the referents of color nouns. US-Latin Essay! The dispute might appear trivial. (Indeed, Lewis (1994, 420) says the What is a, analogous realizer-role dispute in the mental case is 'superficial'.) But it is should more laws, related to interesting modal issues, as Cohen discusses (195, 198). [2] Tye 2006 and Byrne and Essay Hilbert 2007 begin with this argument. Cohen might reply that the conflict intuition is dubious on the grounds that a survey conducted by of Justice Cohen and Nichols (reported by is a Essay Cohen at of Justice p. 148) shows that many do not share this intuition. Cohen and Nichols presented undergraduate students with a case of variation and gave them three options: (i) variant 1 is right and variant 2 is wrong, (ii) variant 2 is right and variant 1 is What is a Essay, wrong, (iii) there is no (absolute) fact of the rehearsal dinner toasts examples, matter. Cohen and Nichols found that some students chose (iii). But, even if students have conflict intuition, they are unlikely to is a Essay, choose (i) or (ii), given the symmetry of the evidence and the absence of an 'independent test' for US-Latin America, color. In addition, (iii) is extremely vague: while it can be taken to express relationalism, it can also be taken to express an eliminativist or non-factualist attitude quite consistent with the conflict intuition. What Essay! Given these two points, the fact that some chose (iii) is poor evidence that they lack the conflict intuition. [3] For the supervenience answer, see Byrne and Hilbert 2007, 88-89 (though they do not use this name).

[4] As Cohen notes (47), Byrne and Hilbert try to Behavior, defend inegalitarianism by saying that cases like the John-Jane case are similar to a case involving miscalibrated thermometers in which inegalitarianism seems like the What Dream? Essay, right verdict. Cohen replies (52) that it is not obvious that the cases are similar. Staying Market Essay! Cohen might have added that there is the following important difference. What Dream?! In the thermometer case, inegalitarianism is only plausible if some thermometers are miscalibrated or operating in non-optimal conditions. By contrast, neither John nor Jane is miscalibrated or operating in non-optimal conditions. So, whereas a plausible reductive psychosemantic theory might be consistent with inegalitarianism in the thermometer case, no reductive psychosemantic theory is consistent with inegalitarianism in the John-Jane case.

The reductive inegalitarian might object against Cohen that the problem merely concerns providing a reductive theory of the representation of fine-grained colors (Byrne and Hilbert 2007, 90). In fact, this is not the problem Cohen stresses. Indeed, a simple tracking theory provides such a theory: as we saw, it entails that the fine-grained colors which John and Jane represent are identical with highly overlapping but distinct reflectance-types, in favor of (non-relational) pluralism and against unlimited and limited resources inegalitarianism. The problem for reductive inegalitarians like Byrne and Hilbert is Dream? Essay, how to devise a (different) reductive account of the situation compatible with their inegalitarianism . [5] For a strong statement of anti-Mooreanism, see Sider (forthcoming). [6] For different versions of conciliatory eliminativism, see Jackson 1977, 128 and Chalmers 2006, 92. [7] Byrne and Hilbert (1997, 223) and Kalderon (2007, 583) describe non-relational pluralism as a possibility. Kalderon also is responsible for the metaphor of 'selection'.

But they admit that they do not have an argument for rehearsal, non-relational pluralism. (More recently, Byrne and Hilbert (2004, 2007) side with inegalitarianism.) However, as noted in the text (and as discussed at the end of this review), it might be that tracking theories and other naturalistic theories of What is a Dream? Essay, representation provide a kind of psychosemantic argument for non-relational pluralism, so that Cohen must consider it a particularly serious rival to his relational pluralism. By contrast, as we have seen, inegalitarianism actually seems to conflict with reductive psychosemantics, making the reductive inegalitarianism of Tye and Byrne and Hilbert an inconsistent position. So, non-relational pluralism would be a natural retreat for reductive inegalitarians, even if it violates the conflict intuition motivating their inegalitarianism. [8] Tye and The Convention of Justice Bradley 2001, 482. Copyright 2004 Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.

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AIR TEMP: 3, clear, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. Rehearsal Dinner Toasts! OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Corey T.Wood. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). Dream? Essay! natural history, drive. 223007 km, to unlimited resources Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills, in good time. Subject: [ottawaherps] first Mudpuppy Night of the is a Dream? Essay year. Date: Fri, 12 Oct 2007 10:20:21 -0400. From: Frederick W. Schueler #60;bckcdb at istar. ca#62; Kemptville Creek, just below Oxford Mills Dam . (50m waypoint), 44.96481N 75.67827W TIME: 1954-2100. AIR TEMP: 4, clear, calm. HABITAT: very low brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 13 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Matt G. Staying Market Essay! Keevil, Corey T.Wood. 2007/193/a, visit () (event). natural history, light, dipnetted, wade, photo. the Dream? Essay year's first Mudpuppy Night survey, water very low. The pond was very low above the dam, and no Animals were visible there in a brief survey with a fading light.

Water was seeping through the lower four logs of the dam (most of the of Justice flow under the lowest log on the east spillway), with three dry logs above the wet ones. Features of the bottom that are usually considerations in wading, are now the shoreline. (at home) TIME: 1955. AIR TEMP: 14, overcast, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 223815 km, to Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills Rana survey. About 2600 DOR Rana (True Frog) estimated along the 7 km of road to What is a Dream? Hutchins Corner, an average of about 370/km. Essay! Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . Is A Dream? Essay! (100m ard dam), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 2009-2044. AIR TEMP: 17, light rain, calm. HABITAT: murky brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam. 2007/203/fa, Ameiurus nebulosus (Brown Bullhead) (fish).

100ca juvenile, seen. ca 10 cm, in shallows of Staying In The Market flats below dam, water murky. . . . and with billows of Spirogyra in the flats and deep water, so that no other fish were certainly seen, and NO:Necturus. (at home) TIME: 1959. AIR TEMP: 0, clear, calm. Dream? Essay! ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Dinner Toasts! Schueler, Rory Tanner. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 225250 km, to Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills, late. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2000-2115. AIR TEMP: 2, clear, calm. HABITAT: very low brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 9 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Is A! Schueler, Rory Tanner, Matt G. Keevil. 2007/216/c, visit () (event). US-Latin America Essay! natural history, light, dipnetted, wade, photo. the What is a Dream? year's first Mudpuppy Night survey, water very low. The water was very low and should more gun control be enacted very murky, so it was impossible to see the What bottom in the deep area (ca 1 m) above the The Convention of Justice Essay bridge.

There was some flow in all spillways, most in is a Dream? the central one. More! Vantage Point Ledge 30 cm or more above the water level. There were few fish on the flats, and from the bridge FWS saw little big Ameiurus nebulosus (Brown Bullhead), and Essay some Centrachids, but none of them big. NO:Esox, NO:Micropterus seen anywhere. (at home) TIME: 2000. AIR TEMP: -1, clear, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 225550 km, to Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills, late. Though MGK is already at the site.

Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . (100m ard dam), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 2000-2105. Behavior! AIR TEMP: -3.5, clear, calm. HABITAT: brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water low, murky brown, +3 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Essay! Schueler, Matt G. Keevil. 2007/220/a, visit () (event). natural history, light, wade. well-puppied Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills. Matt just entering the water as FWS AKS arrive, trying to take videos of the wants and limited resources numerous Necturus in the mossy algae (or is it algaey moss?) on the lower parts of the What is a Dream? flats.

AKS soon retired to the Brigadoon, while FWS did the flats and MGK did the deep water above and under the bridge, and Essay then about 100 m downstream to is a Dream? Essay the head of the first pool. Essay On Sexual Behavior! (at home) TIME: 1945. AIR TEMP: -3, clear, windy. What Is A Dream?! ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Essay On Sexual! Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 226398 km, to Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills. Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . (200m alg stream), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 2002-2050. AIR TEMP: -4, clear, windy. HABITAT: brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water low, murky brown, +2.5 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Valerie Kirkwood, Brian Day. 2007/224/a, visit () (event). natural history, light, wade. well-puppied Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills. . . including the second smashed mid-stream Pumpkin of the What is a Dream? Essay year. Dinner! (at home) TIME: 1830ca.

AIR TEMP: -8, light overcast, breezy. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Judy Courteau, Robert Forsyth. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. in Judy's car to Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills. Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . Is A! (200m alg stream), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 2002-2055. AIR TEMP: -6.5, light overcast, calm. HABITAT: brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water low, turbid, +1.5 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Judy Courteau. On Sexual! 2007/226/ea, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 49 adult, food, seen, dipnetted. mostly at downsteam end of flats, 2 eating Rana clamitans. Water is still turbid, but clearer than in recent weeks -- the entire bottom could be scanned from the bridge. Four were seen downstream and Dream? 2 upstream from the bridge, all on the mid/west side of the stream. Canada: Ontario: Grenville County: Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . (200m alg stream), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 1859-1910.

AIR TEMP: 0 ca, overcast, snowing, calm. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. 2007/227/aa, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 28 adult, food, seen. 1 st of 2 visits to Outsourcing: Competitive see if they are moving upstream. I saw 20 Mudpuppies as I waded across the What Dream? Essay foot of the flats, 2 on the west side of the flats, and 4 large ones at the Vantage Point ledge just below the spillway on the west side, with 2 on the east side flats. Canada: Ontario: Grenville County: Bishops Mills General Store . Unlimited! (100m ard homesite), 44.87282N 75.70097W TIME: 1937. AIR TEMP: -3.5, clear, windy. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). Is A Dream? Essay! natural history, drive. 226984 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night.

Some periods of should more gun control blindingly blown snow along the way. Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . (100m blw dam), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 1955-2050. Is A! AIR TEMP: -5 ca, clear, windy. HABITAT: open brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water ca 0.5 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Joe Sparling, Jalen Bartlett. 2007/229/fa, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 14 adult, seen, dipnetted, captured. 8 at foot of flats, 5 on W side, 1 in Outsourcing: Staying Competitive In The Global Essay midstream, all spry active. The noted 'spry'ness was evidenced by the way they changed their position between surveys: Matt waded the foot of the flats and counted 8, all but one pressed into crevices, and then about 15 minutes later FWS waded back, and also counted 8, but all were crawling on the surface of the rock.

Temperatures are estimated because FWS left a multitude of thermometers at home. NO:Orconectes seen. What Essay! NO:Mammalia tracks noted in the snow around the shores or above the dam. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1947. AIR TEMP: -3, light overcast, calm. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 227270 km, to of Justice Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills. Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . (100m blw dam), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 2002-2043. AIR TEMP: -2.5, light overcast, calm. HABITAT: brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. What Dream?! Schueler, Matt G. America Essay! Keevil, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Brian Day.

2007/230/c, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). What Is A Dream? Essay! 17 adult, seen, photo. 2 below bridge, 15 on below flats, crk frozen over above bridge. Matt waded the flats and counted 15, most densely at unlimited wants and limited the downstream west side of the flats, and took some photos. Dream? Essay! FWS cut about 5 sq m of ice from a smooth shelf off the west side without uncovering any. Two large ones were in midstream below the bridge, but the stream above the bridge was frozen over for the first time, with a 50 cm high mound of In The Market white foam where the main current goes under the is a Dream? Essay ice. US-Latin Essay! About 30 cm of What is a Essay fresh-surfaced snow on the ground. (at home) TIME: 1944. AIR TEMP: -13, clear, calm.

ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. On Sexual! Schueler. Is A! villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 227564 km, to Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills. Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . (100m blw dam), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 2000-2035. AIR TEMP: -12.5, clear, breezy. HABITAT: extensively frozen-over brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam. More Gun Control Laws Be Enacted! OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil. 2007/231/e, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp).

45ca adult, seen, photo. large small, both in cracks moving actively around flats. Matt arrived first, seeing one on the west side in the shallows above the Vantage Point, and then and waded the flats trying to photograph Necturus through the Dream? Essay ripply water. And Limited Resources! When FWS arrived they were densest at the downstream west side of the flats, where he counted 17 in wading across. One was visible from the Vantage Point ledge (ca 2 cm above water level, and capped in snow) when we counted. But when FWS counted the east side and spillway ledge, there were only 2 to be seen -- but when MGK waded up to and they went back down the flats there were 10 or more, and about 15 on What Dream? the east side and midstream flats.

None of wants and limited resources these were right up under the spillway ledge. Is A! (at home) TIME: 1956. AIR TEMP: -5.5, overcast, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Rory Tanner. America! villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 227795 km, to Mudpuppy Night in Dream? Oxford Mills. This Mudpuppy Night is a moderately perfunctory affair, because it interrupts the things are such a mess we won't invite anybody Solstice celebration. Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . (100m blw dam), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 2008-2035. AIR TEMP: -5, overcast, calm. Outsourcing: Staying Competitive Global! HABITAT: extensively frozen-over brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam. 2007/232/a, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 25 adult, seen. large small, both in What is a cracks moving actively around flats.

We arrived at rehearsal toasts the scene at 20h08, and were gone by 20h35. The snow was so deep that just walking down to the water was a challenge, and the Seburns, who arrived just as we were finishing, decided not to attempt it. Canada: Ontario: Grenville County: Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . Is A Dream? Essay! (50m blw dam), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 2000-2035. AIR TEMP: -2. HABITAT: highwater brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Matt G. Keevil, Amanda Bennett, Brian Day.

MGK07Dec282000/a, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 11 adult, seen. Should More Laws Be Enacted! scattered around area, higher water than previously this yr. Eleven Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) were seen: (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1956. AIR TEMP: -5, clear, Beaufort gentle breeze. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. subarulog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. in What is a Dream? Essay Corey's Subaru to Mudpuppy Night in Oxford Mills, late. The context of this departure was Judy Aleta's decision, at about 16h20, to quickly view a movie Judy had rented and hadn't had the time to see (this was a movie about the Japanese side of the battle for Imo Jimo). They were going to more be enacted go to Judy's place to see it (in order that the rental not be wasted), return the video to What Dream? Kemptville, and then bring the vehicle around here to pick me up, feed me a piece of a shepherd's pie, and drop me at Oxford Mills in on Sexual time for Mudpuppy Night at 20h00. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2017-2130. AIR TEMP: -4, light overcast, calm. HABITAT: brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Brian Day, Kelly ------. 2008/001/c, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp).

9 adult, seen, dipnetted. 5 on lower E-side flats, 2 in W-side eddy, 2 in lower W-side bay. The water was high (15 cm above the Vantage Point ledge) and golden clear, and it looks like all the What Essay previous ice cover was broken off and swept away by should more laws the rise in water levels. There was a curb of hard clear ice around all the shores, but 10-20 cm of water under fluffy snow within the curb in What is a Dream? Essay many or most places. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 2205. AIR TEMP: -3.5, light overcast, calm. HABITAT: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. subarulog, arrival () (event). natural history, drive. in Corey's Subaru from Mudpuppy Night in and limited resources Oxford Mills. (below the What is a Dream? dam at rehearsal dinner toasts examples Oxford Mills) TIME: 1601-1617. AIR TEMP: 3.5, overcast, windy. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water ca 0.5 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. 2008/002/c, visit () (event). natural history, seen, heard. at What spring spate levels, up onto Helisoma Ledge.

A Nuisance Flooding bulletin sent around by the RVCA predicted that the present warm snap would cause Water levels to. . . reach or exceed bankfull stage. . . typical of an of Justice, average spring freshet. . . (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1942. What Is A Dream? Essay! AIR TEMP: 3.5, overcast, windy. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. Wants! villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 228377.5 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 1955-2024. Dream?! AIR TEMP: 2.5, overcast, windy, drizzle. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Brian Day. 2008/002/d, visit () (event). natural history, light, photo. Mudpuppy Night outing at spring spate levels, NO:Necturus.

I'd written on the Nature List: spate has set all-time records for flow in January. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1952. AIR TEMP: -6, clear, Beaufort gentle breeze. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. focuslog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. Should! 219236 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. (below the dam at Dream? Oxford Mills) TIME: 2008-2038. AIR TEMP: -8, clear, Beaufort moderate breeze. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. More Laws! OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Aleta Karstad Schueler. FWS08Jan182008/a, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 1 adult, seen. 1 in the east eddy, Mudpuppy Night outing with very high water. As each week passes, we get better and What Dream? better lights.

Tonight we tried out be enacted, a variable-intensity 3 million candle-power light, which Aleta had bought yesterday in the Canadian Tire in Kemptville, but which didn't seem any brighter than Matt Keevil's 1 million candle-power unit, which is the same model as the one we've been using all fall, and which runs out of charge before we're done with a Mudpuppy Night. But without much to see, tonight the What is a Dream? Essay lights both held out until we were done. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1951. AIR TEMP: -6, snowing, Beaufort gentle breeze. Should More Gun Control Laws Be Enacted! ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. What Dream? Essay! Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. Gun Control! 228570 km, to Oxford Mills for What is a Dream?, Mudpuppy Night. (below the dam at US-Latin Essay Oxford Mills) TIME: 2002-2045. AIR TEMP: -8, breezy, snowing.

HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Tom Cook, Kelly-----, ++. What Is A Essay! 2008/006/a, visit () (event). natural history, dipnetted, light, wade. NO:Necturus in The Convention Essay Mudpuppy Night outing, by wading from bridge. Matt Keevil and I waded, and Matt crossed the creek. What Is A Dream? Essay! The water is very clear, with 25 cm surging over the Vantage Point ledge, and the shores curbed by neat borders of ice, which forms as the water falls away below in. Essay! The spillways all have open water for their whole height, and the most water seems to be coming over Essay, the east spillway. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1852. AIR TEMP: -9, overcast, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 228703 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. (below the dam at US-Latin America Oxford Mills) TIME: 1904-2000.

AIR TEMP: -10, clear, calm. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Brian Day, Steve Marks, +++. 2008/007/a, visit () (event). Is A Dream?! natural history, dipnetted, light, wade. NO:Necturus in Mudpuppy Night outing, by wading from bridge. Wants! This was a supplemental outing for a group assembled by Steve Marks. Matt Keevil and several of the others waded tonight, so the bottom was scanned about as thoroughly as it has ever been at this water level.

Date: Tue, 29 Jan 2008 15:52:27 -0500. What Dream?! From: Steve Marks #60;steve. marks 66 at Essay gmail. com#62; To: 'Frederick W Schueler' #60;bckcdb at istar. ca#62;, 'Josh V' #60;josh_v_17 at hotmail. com#62;, 'Kimberley'#60;kheaphy at What Dream? sympatico. US-Latin America! ca#62;, 'Dave Smith'#60;dsmith at lgl. com#62;, #60;wking at Dream? Essay lgl. com#62;, Nicki #60;nicki at herputopia. US-Latin America Essay! ca#62;, 'Tracey Cress' #60;thelizardlady at What is a Essay gmail. com#62;, Crystal Robertson #60;crystalsnakes at hotmail. com#62; (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1949. AIR TEMP: -6, Beaufort gentle breeze, drizzle, light snow. More Laws! OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. What! subarulog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night, in Corey's Subaru. (below the The Convention of Justice dam at What is a Dream? Essay Oxford Mills) TIME: 2005-2040. AIR TEMP: -5, heavy snow, breezy. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Outsourcing: Global Market! Keevil, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Clay Shearer.

2008/007/b, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 5 adult, seen, dipnetted. all smallish, 1 in What is a Dream? Essay W-side eddy, 1 upper, 3 lower E side flats. We saw five Mudpuppies tonight: one in the central west-side eddy, one on the upper east-side flats, and three on toasts examples the lower east-side flats. All were fairly small. The population is What is a Dream? Essay, coming back from wherever they hide during high fast water, and our search was so thorough that it's clear that numbers are depressed below what we would expect at rehearsal this time of year, but a search through the database shows that they're not depressed below what we would expect at this water level: there's still 10 cm of water sloshing over the Vantage Point. (below the dam at What Essay Oxford Mills) TIME: 1615-1622. AIR TEMP: -1, sunny, calm. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. 2008/008/e, Lontra canadensis (River Otter) (Mammal). present adult, tracks. trackways from below dam, up W spillway around spillway above dam. One trackway comes out resources, of the creek above the Vantage Point ledge, and is a then right up the snow-covered spillway, which is bridged with ice.

Above the dam there's a scrabble of tracks around the of Justice Essay gnawed hole noted earlier W of the W spillway, and a small hole on the E side of the W spillway. This confirms our suspicion that the Otters will go right up the spillways. Dream?! Otherwise the The Convention Essay deep new snow on the banks and above the dam is untracked. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 2000. AIR TEMP: -6.5, clear, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. focuslog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 219615 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. With everybody at home either not home or leaving after working late, I had sunken into the occasional Friday-evening lethargy that makes it a slow chore to get ready to leave for What Dream? Essay, Mudpuppy Nights, but when I headed out the sky was clear and calm.

Coming out of Bishops Mills there were billows and America Essay then sheets of low fog, which got denser and is a denser as I went north, until outside of Oxford Mills I was slowed to a crawl. Maybe this is some of the densest fog we've ever seen along this often-foggy stretch of The Convention road. When I got to Oxford Mills, the mudpuppiers said that the fog had just appeared there. (below the dam at is a Dream? Oxford Mills) TIME: 2000-2055. AIR TEMP: -6, clear, calm, foggy. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, W.von Papineau, B.Day, S.Anderson, S.Barre, Jeff Rowell, ++. 2008/015/a, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 16 adult, seen, dipnetted. most smallish, 7 in W-side eddy, 1 on E side, 8 on lower flats. The water is still very clear, and the level is Outsourcing: Competitive, down to 6 cm rushing over the Vantage Point ledge (no Mudpuppies seen from there, with strong currents and is a Dream? little 5-10 cm snow pans floating in the eddy). (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1948. AIR TEMP: -15.5, clear, calm. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 231226 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. (below the dam at The Convention Essay Oxford Mills) TIME: 2001-2035.

AIR TEMP: -22, clear, calm. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. What Dream? Essay! Schueler, Matt G. Outsourcing: Staying Competitive In The Market! Keevil, Brian A.Day. Is A! 2008/016/b, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 32 adult, seen. America! no ice cover, 2 in W-side eddy, 4 on What Dream? Essay W-side flats, 26 on E side. The water is still quite clear, and the level is down to 4 cm rushing over should gun control, the Vantage Point ledge, though no Mudpuppies were seen from What Dream? Essay there, what with the strong currents and ice cover close to the shore. Fog was boiling densely up from the open water, and drifting back upstream over the dam in the very slight breeze, (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1719. AIR TEMP: -7, clear, Beaufort light breeze. ROUTE: Co Road 18. Essay On Sexual! OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. What! villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 231251 km, to Oxford Mills for supplemental Mudpuppy Night.

Early this winter the Staying In The Global Natural history club of the hills -- club naturaliste des jeunesses des collines from Chelsea inquired about the possibility of an early evening Saturday outing at Oxford Mills, and so we warned them about maybe not seeing many early in the evening, and about possible high water levels, and they said they'd come anyway, so we put them in touch with the Brigadoon, and now we're heading off, in the brilliant sunset, to meet them. (below the What Essay dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 1910-2015. AIR TEMP: -15, clear, calm. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Natural History Club of the Hills. 2008/017/a, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 5 adult, seen. no ice cover, 4 on lower Eside, 1(late)nr shore on W side. After seeing 32 Mudpuppies last night I was expecting that we'd see plenty tonight, even if we were starting at 19h00 rather than the The Convention usual hour later.

The east side is still placid (with the two big ice islands in the middle) and the water level is still falling. After the others had gone in, I checked the What Essay west side again and saw one Mudpuppy tucked under a ledge below the Vantage Point. US-Latin! Some of us retreated to the upstairs of the Brigadoon for supplemental beverages before the Dream? families headed home. There still is no ice cover, but the surface was variegated with little pans and gun control laws be enacted slushes of various kinds, so if we have another few cold nights it should be frozen over. There's still some open water under the bridge, but none visible from the span, where the channel is covered with frozen masses of foam and sheets of congealed slush. The water continues quite clear, but with a peat-brown colour when the light goes into a 1 m depth.

NO:Mammalia tracks above or below the dam. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 2255. AIR TEMP: -18, clear, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. Is A Essay! OBSERVER: Frederick W. Outsourcing: Staying Competitive In The Market Essay! Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. What! 231668 km, to Oxford Mills for Total Lunar Eclipse Mudpuppy Night. Leaving just at the end of hour-long totality. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2307-2330.

AIR TEMP: -18, clear, calm. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. 2008/017/b, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 6 adult, seen. no ice cover, 3 on lower Eside, 2 on W side, 1 above bridge on E. I wrote of Saturday on the Nature List: (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2000-2100ca. AIR TEMP: -15, clear, calm. US-Latin Essay! OBSERVER: Matt G. Keevil, Frederick W. Dream?! Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler.

2008/018/a, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 14 adult, seen. Should More Gun Control! no ice cover, 10 on Eside, 4 caulked in downstream ledge. . . . at What Dream? Essay the foot of the flats. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 2009. AIR TEMP: -9, light overcast, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 19. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 231876 km, to Staying In The Market Essay Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night aft AKS e-mail. What Essay! . . . screw-up, or, rather, prolonged consultation on the subject of why none of the mail from her Nature Journal domains comes through to her. FWS in vehicle since 19h56 when this consultation was already excessively prolonged. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1950. AIR TEMP: -10, snowing, Beaufort light air. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive.

232481 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. Fine snow just beginning to fall. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2004-2055. The Convention Essay! AIR TEMP: -9, snowing, Beaufort light air. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at is a Dream? Essay limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Brian Day, Wes von Papineau, +. 2008/008/ba, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 17 adult, seen, dipnetted. no ice cover, 1 from bridge, 10 on E side, 5 on lower flats, 1 on W. Water shiningly clear and dinner toasts brownish, with swirls of fine patches of foam, but only narrow shelves of What is a Dream? Essay ice are encroaching on the open water. Should Laws! (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1955.

AIR TEMP: -2, snowing, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. Is A Dream? Essay! ?km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. Should Gun Control Be Enacted! Matt set out a few minutes ahead of me, hoping to pick up some mail before the Oxford Mills Stoire closed at 20h00, and we both agreed that Oxford Mills is a lot farther away when it's snowing heavily. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2010-2035. AIR TEMP: -2, snowing, Beaufort light air. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Brian Day. 2008/020/a, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 1 adult, seen, dipnetted. no ice cover, 1 on What Dream? Essay E side, none on W. I wrote on the Nature List: (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 1913. AIR TEMP: 0, overcast, calm.

OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 233052 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night via Kemptville. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2007-2045. AIR TEMP: -1, overcast, calm. More Gun Control Laws Be Enacted! HABITAT: high brown-water creek at What is a limestone flats below old milldam, water ca 0.5 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil, Tom Cook, Kelly -----. 2008/022/fa, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 6 adult, seen. no ice cover, all at Essay on Sexual Behavior lower E side, none on Essay flats or from bridge. Staying! Water very clear, and with patches of Dream? Essay big-bubble foam sweeping downstream 10 cm of water over the Vantage Point ledge. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 2056.

AIR TEMP: -3, clear, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Essay! Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 234947 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. Cheryl Doran, her husband Pierre, and What is a Essay their three children came for The Convention Essay, supper from Ottawa, so with the problem of getting 12 boots onto feet when supper was followed by a bout of Dogpuppy fondling among Jamie's Labradors, I headed off by What Dream? Essay myself, and pulled into the lot just before Matt Keevil arrived. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2108-2129.

AIR TEMP: -3, clear, Beaufort light breeze. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam, water 0 C. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Unlimited Wants! Schueler, Matt G. Keevil. 2008/025/ba, Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy) (herp). 1 adult, seen. small, at upper E side, none on W side or from bridge, no icecover. Matt did the east side, and saw, but failed to Dream? catch, one small Mudpuppy on the upper east side flats. I did the west side, and found 15 cm of clear water flowing and surging over the Vantage Point. There was no ice cover, of The Convention Essay course, but there was a 2 m slab of What Dream? ice stranded on the east side where the ice-island was earlier this year. The water temperature was still 0 C. (Bishops Mills Store) TIME: 2052.

AIR TEMP: 0, overcast, calm. ROUTE: Co Road 18. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. villagerlog, departure (departure) (event). natural history, drive. 235136 km, to Oxford Mills for Mudpuppy Night. (below the dam at Oxford Mills) TIME: 2106-2133. More Gun Control Be Enacted! AIR TEMP: 0, overcast, calm. HABITAT: high brown-water creek at Essay limestone flats below old milldam.

OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Matt G. Keevil. Essay On Sexual! 2008/027/a, visit () (event). survey, light, wade. Dream?! NO:Necturus maculosus in The Convention of Justice Essay Mudpuppy Night outing. Matt Keevil and I patrolled the stream and What is a Dream? Essay shores, and while we were rewarded with the lovely sight of rolling waters (water still quite clear, 30 cm over the Vantage Point ledge, surging 20 cm on some shores), we saw no Mudpuppies or other animate life. waded both the east and west sides, at times so deeply that at times I was concerned lest he be washed away, but he neither came to any harm. nor saw any Animals. (below the dam at The Convention Essay Oxford Mills) TIME: 2115-2133. AIR TEMP: 6 ca, clear, calm.

OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. 2008/027/b, Helisoma campanulatum (Bell-mouth Ramshorn) (Mollusca). abundant shell, drift, seen. drift on What is a Dream? Essay ice abvc dam on west shore. Examples! At the Faith Science meeting in Kemptville, Jim White had been telling stories of the is a Dream? spectacle of watching ice crunch over the dam in Oxford Mills, and dinner examples of watching the leaping waves under the bridge almost come up to touch the span, so I stopped here to assess the Essay water level, and the state of the drift that accumulates there in the spring. Canada: Ontario: Grenville County: Oxford Mills Dam, Kemptville Creek . (100m ard dam), 44.96486N 75.67863W TIME: 1703. AIR TEMP: 25 ca, sunny, calm. HABITAT: brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam. Staying Global Market Essay! OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler. Dream?! 2008/047/g, visit () (event). America Essay! nat.hist., driveby. no water over waste weir, but water at ledge above Vantage Point. . . Is A Dream? Essay! . then a long shopping and banking interlude in Kemptville. Canada: Ontario: Grenville County: Co Road 18/Kemptville Creek, in Oxford Mills . (50m waypoint), 44.96484N 75.67860W TIME: 2124-2128.

AIR TEMP: 13 ca, clear, calm. HABITAT: bridge over brown-water creek at limestone flats below old milldam in town. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler. 2008/049/ca, Rana pipiens (Leopard Frog) (herp). 1 female, grav, DOR. ca 75-48 mm, flattened dry, eggs smeared, just W of should more gun control laws bridge span. In the usual movement corridor for this species. 1)greyish, dark olive, juv, 80 ca, 38, 8.9, stom. What Essay! cont. large caterpillar-like larva - gonads missing. 1)mottled yelowish, olive, m testes 7 x 4 mm, 68 ca, 33, 10. Canada: Ontario: Grenville County: Co Road 18/Kemptville Creek, in Oxford Mills . (50m waypoint), 44.96484N 75.67860W TIME: 1908. OBSERVER: Frederick W. Schueler, Aleta Karstad Schueler.

2008/062/g, Homo sapiens (Human People) (Mammal). 4+ adult, seen, driveby. 4 fishing from bridge, more in area, Vantage Pt ledge awash.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isnt the What Dream? Essay point of the essay that youre supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you dont know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the authors argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples youll be able to US-Latin, find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you.

By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on What Dream? Essay planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you havent already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the Essay SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in is a Dream? Essay, common: Theyre all passages that try to Essay on Sexual Behavior, convince the is a Dream? reader of the veracity of the authors claim Theyre all around the unlimited wants and limited same length (650-750 words) Theyre all meant to be analyzed and What written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of The Convention of Justice, what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the is a Dream? first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just dont have the time to analyze and dinner toasts write about complex techniques.

And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples thatll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues we've provided some ideas below. We've chosen two examples of What is a Essay, evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of Outsourcing: Staying Competitive, stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of is a Dream? Essay, prompts. Rehearsal Dinner Toasts? This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of What is a Essay, evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and The Convention of Justice Essay Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to Dream?, build an argument.

This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of on Sexual Behavior, light in the sky increases an average of What Dream?, about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn.

Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the Outsourcing: Staying Competitive Global Market Essay World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is is a often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence.

Here's an Competitive Global Essay example of (part of) an anecdote from an is a Essay official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to of Justice Essay, see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of What Dream?, caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle.

We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as Americas Serengeti. Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because its more relatable/interesting to Behavior, the reader to read an Dream? anecdote than to dinner examples, be presented with dry, boring facts. Dream?? People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). The Convention Of Justice? In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to What Essay, illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the should gun control laws be enacted reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but its not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. Is A? It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to dinner, the author's main point.

The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is What is a Dream? likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an Essay example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: You could say some computer games develop creativity, says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in What is a, Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. But I dont see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and painta lot of really practical and In The Essay creative endeavors. But its not that simple.

While there are dangers inherent in What Dream?, access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussions going to be more fair. This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an Staying Competitive In The Essay opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the What Dream? counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the dinner toasts topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the author knows the What Dream? topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only of Justice Essay mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the is a Dream? Essay author links her evidence and Outsourcing: Staying Competitive In The Market her claims is integral to the author's argument.

As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. Its the thinking the logic, the analysis that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is What Dream? present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the more gun control laws explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage):

And at MITs Education Arcade, playing the What is a empire-building game Civilization piqued students interest in history and was directly linked to Outsourcing: Competitive Essay, an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the What is a Dream? explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to dinner examples, use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the authors argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the is a Essay Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and The Convention Essay thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in What Essay, front of the Essay on Sexual TV).

This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the What Dream? Essay reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the reader is Essay on Sexual forced to What is a Dream?, reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on Outsourcing: In The Global Market Essay a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the What is a Dream? Essay top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic).

Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that dont seem to have purely functional purposes . Should More Be Enacted? Here are a couple of examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: show that what was a very dark country as recently as the What Dream? 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of Essay on Sexual Behavior, a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and What Essay money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the America reader in the authors shoes and draws them into is a Dream? Essay, the passage . US-Latin Essay? If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the is a sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader.

The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and dinner examples appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the What is a Essay passage is The Convention light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to is a, rhetorical questions. Essay? Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the Essay war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to Essay, die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the What Essay Paul Bogard article):

Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in Outsourcing: Global, our children or grandchildren? Appealing to What is a, the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and The Convention of Justice Essay their brothers and What is a their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for The Convention of Justice Essay the poor. Rhetorical questions , on Essay the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world. By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the on Sexual Behavior reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of Dream?, topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to Essay, discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to What is a Dream?, develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how youll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of America, time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. Is A Dream?? We've written a bunch of Essay on Sexual Behavior, detailed guides to is a Dream?, make sure you do.

Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about whats changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the of Justice SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on is a how to score a perfect SAT score, written by Outsourcing: Competitive In The, our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to is a Dream?, how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of unlimited, Music of Bard College. Is A? She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and America Essay GRE and loves advising students on how to is a Dream? Essay, excel in high school.

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H1B Visa Worker Deported at Port of Entry After CBP Officer Finds Fake Resumes on his White iPhone. I came across the transcript of What, Indian National with H1B Visa deported at Port of Entry at Chicago recently (Sep 2016). The CBP Officer found fake resume with 7 years work experience, when the America, H1B Visa holder was a recent college graduate on F1 Visa and started working form 2015 at a consulting company. I recorded a video based on the conversation between the CBP officer and What is a Dream? Essay, the H1B visa holder. Watch the video below to learn more about the interaction between the H1B Visa worker and CBP officer. H1B Visa Deported at Port of Entry Video. Some of the members were questioning if CBP officer have the authority to search someones mobile phone? As far I know, they have permisison to search the the contents of the should more, phone and your belongings at the Port of Entry. Theres a program called Border Security: Americas Front Line.

Watch the first episode from What is a 2016. More Gun Control Be Enacted! You will get a gist of this. Are you worried about Deportation? Heres my guess (and I could be wrong). H1B workers without any questionable background shouldnt have worry about What Dream?, deportation. Im sure you know what Im talking about. More Laws Be Enacted! Heres a couple of blog posts that were published recently. Im sure anyone looking for H1B Visa would be aware of Fake Resume, Desi Consulting companies and how things work with consulting firms when students go to Dream? them to find a job on OPT.

Should we call this person as unlucky or it was about time something like this happened? I have heard stories of H1B Visa workers being denied entry at the port of entry for various reasons. If you may remember, there was similar experience when several F1 Visa students were deported. One CBP officer found WhatsApp messages of Staying Global Essay, student asking for Essay Part-Time jobs. Be your own judge.

You know what is right and wrong and of Justice, the consequence of Dream? Essay, being wrong. Some of the readers are questioning the authenticity of this transcript. I would be more worried about what happens if someone would get caught, than worrying about if this getting H1B Visa deportation at port of entry is fake vs fact. I highly doubt if the more laws, person is going to What Dream? come forward to give an interview to the media to accept that he used fake resume. Would you do that? Probably not. I want to ask somethng. If a person enter usa on C1 visa. After getting sign off from ship at usa coast. The Convention Of Justice Essay! He stayed in usa 2-3 days more because his flight got missed and after that his flight got reshedule after 3 days.

And he went to What home country safely. Now he think of America, working in Dream? Essay, Usa on H1 visa . Now is there any problem at port of entry usa if he comes to usa again for working in America Essay, usa. What a piece of crap.. Did you verify the authenticity of the What is a Dream?, transcript before publishing here? If so, please make the source public for and limited resources this to What Dream? Essay be believed as credible. Should Laws! If you cant reveal the source, then this could be just made up by someone. And I have never ever had any officer check in to my emails or phone when I entered US. I dont deny that they cant do, but I am pretty sure it cannot be a random check like a baggage check and might need proper warrant before doing one. Also in the last page it says, you will be sent back to Mexico.

Why are you saying it as India by yourself? Lol, if you want to create an awareness on something, this is not the tone to show. What Is A Essay! You could just create a real awareness video with possible consequences. You should watch Americas Border Security in Netflix to Market get a feel for of what authority CBP has when it comes to checking your things. I got my visa for MS in Electrical Engineering.

Will I be denied entry to US if I carry less amount of money (say $200) with me? My brother is a US citizen and What Dream? Essay, he will pay my tuition. P.S. I have scholarship and Essay, my tuition is about $6000 per year. Its tough to answer your question. Can you prove to them that your brother is going to pay? Even raghu cannot say anything on this , make sure to pay your fee online for safe side before you come apart from your scholarship , it is very unpredictable whether you getting deported or allowed. You dont really need to carry much money. 200$ is fine.

But dont bring liquid to US. Thats all. Im currently International student who are studying in What Dream?, US. Because of Outsourcing: Market Essay, fake resume i was not given MS certificate. Is A! Then i joined in America Essay, another MS course in another univ. Is A! but so far my reinstatement didnt takeplace.

Almost 3rd sem in 2 MS is going on. Dinner Toasts Examples! What if my reinstatenent us not done before completion. I doubt the credibility and I have seen the transcript. 1) How come the guy has a start date of Sep when he was on F1 ? H1 starts from is a Dream? OCt. 2) Why did the The Convention of Justice Essay, officer say we will deport you to mexico.

3) Why did the is a Dream? Essay, officer say we will cancel your B1B2 visa ? Looks like a fake transcript which is being circulated in the market. Either ways not supporting any fraudulent activity but logically its not making sense. Sorry to hear that news about this student who got deported. I am answering the question #2) WHY FAKE RESUME? As we know job is so important in all lives, why no jobs in india, why in usa too.. 1) Indian job trend is screwed up, less opportunities, less salary, more people. 2) Coming to wants and limited resources usa as f-1 visa spending again some $ ( xx,xxx ) and assuming to get a job in OPT and What is a Essay, OPT-ext, but now its a nightmare,

3) very less students who are from top notch universities and Outsourcing: Staying Competitive In The, people who have heavy strong references can get internships, but this is not the case with all, 4) most of the jobs are either fulltime or permanent which requires GC, citizen only, where are the OPT candidates. 5) Most of the USA IT job market is getting monopolysing, no one is What is a Dream? Essay preferring a sophomore, or a fresher, the minimum requirement to attend the job is starting from 5,7,8 years and above experience, which is a huge experience, How could anyone expect these many years right after B-tech or MS, which is US-Latin America Essay totally impractical, TO MEET THESE DEMANDS AND REQUIREMENTS MADE BY THE PRIME VENDORS,IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS, CLIENTS, AND OTHER JOB MARKET STAKE HOLDERS, THESE CONSULTANTS ARE TRYING TO SATISFY THEIR REQUIREMENTS AND ACTING ACCORDINGLY. WHEN SOMEONE IS GETTING A JOB AS FRESHER WHY WOULD ANYONE PUT AS EXPERIENCED.

SO PLEASE CREATE OPPORTUNITY FOR EVERYONE, DONT JUST LIMIT TO GC OR CITIZENS. INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AND LOCAL STUDENTS ARE THE PART OF ECONOMIC GENERATION THROUGH UNIVERSITIES BY PAYING FEES, AND NO JOBS LATER. CHECK THE STUDENTS SKILLSETS AND INTERVIEW HEM BASED ON YOUR REQUIREMENT, BUT NOT TOTAL YEARS OF EXPERIENCE, THAT DOESNT COUNT ALWAYS. E.G. A GARBAGE SITTING NEAR A ROAD FOR 20 YEARS IS 20 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE, DOING THE SAME THING, NOTHING ELSE APART FROM BEING A GARBAGE CONTAINER. because of the What is a Dream? Essay, above reasons, a candidate is forced through the rehearsal dinner examples, system to put fake resume, else why would anyone do that. Was the iPhone asked and checked from the is a Essay, visa officer . there is mis-conception of filing h1b1, it is not the candidate who files h1b1, the company files for a candidate to offer him a job, so the way you should be looking at ismultiple companies are giving job offers to Staying Competitive In The Market Essay the same guy.thats how you should look at filing h1b1stechnically candidate would never be able to file a h1b1.

So when you have multiple offers, its your will to is a join one company and the rest of the h1b1s become invalid immediately. Raghuram sir i have been working in a nationalized bank as an wants and limited, asst manager and presently i have resigned my job due to my husbands job relocation. He is on What is a Dream? Essay L1 visa and The Convention of Justice Essay, im going to US this month end on Essay dependent visa .Could you guide me about the Outsourcing: In The Global, job prospects in US . Will i get any part time job too there as i dont wont to be idle for so long and waste my talents. What! Thanks in advance sir. You need work authorization to wants work in What Dream? Essay, the USA. Getting one on L2 is easy. Waste my talent is hyped statement . What is correct is ** I Need Dollars.$$$$$$**. even after this, many still do this same mistake intentionally. Agreed. In The Global Market Essay! Well Said. Using fake resumes is completely unethical.

How about filing multiple H1-B petitions? Is this ethical ? Why does this system allows it. They need to reform it. What Dream?! Whats your take on it ? I blame the America, consulting/ staffing company also, what action the What Dream? Essay, government did against this guy consulting company. The grass root is the company not the candidate. Cant blame only the consultancy/staffing agency here. Agree they are all part of the fraud. But when there is supply there has to be a demand (client) for the same.

The whole system needs to be overhauled. The transcript what you read is absolute fake.in the questionarie the The Convention, cbp officer says that he will be sent back to is a Mexico, means the candidate travelled to unlimited resources Mexico either Mexico for his h1b stamping. But on his visa, the visa issuance happened in hydetabad. What Essay! Secondly the cbp officer says that he will camcel b1 b2 :).and thirdly when i checked online his i94 status he is pretty much in on Sexual, usa since 2014.please check his details online 1. What Is A Essay! One can have both B1/B2 and H1B at the same time. 2. I-94 gets updated only if the person enters U.S.A. The Convention Essay! He go tH1B, but did not enter on H1B.

So, I have to is a Dream? Essay assume, his old I-94 would reflect F-1. 3. I think Mexico might be a mistake in the transcript. Im trying to reach this person via several means. Let me know if anyone can connect me to him. Fake resume I want to answer this only beautiful question first thing first in America, consulting language 7 years is a fresher 8 years fake is What Dream? 2 years experience Opt . I have tried my best to Global Market Essay get a job with 2 years genuine back last year all these vendors simply did time passed with me and What is a Dream? Essay, not even single client call in 50-70 odd jobs applied on Competitive so called Dice.com the adda of Desi consulting companies.. Some people dont even give respect if one try as fresher .Not everyone get a full time so on top of it opt pressure ..only option is What is a Dream? consultancy and rehearsal dinner toasts examples, they try to grab your pathetical situation as opportunity market resume with 7+ years and yea students are almost equal to homeless guys if we dont have a job so only What is a, alternative found ?? Yea desi consultancy . Essay Behavior! So all these factors counts , only 2% of students will have that mindset to earn quick money but 98% will take this route as they dont have any other choice .. I feel very bad for that unlucky guy if I were him I will not simply stop saying yes or no infact I would say how we get jobs .here (hoping ample of job opportunities created for What is a freshers ).Again finally it is Outsourcing: Staying Competitive not the mistake of student it is the system and reacting According to it . Now you please answer the question 2 why fake resume ? Let me tell you this. Its not the Dream? Essay, system, its the The Convention, candidate. I spoke to What is a Dream? Essay my cousin who is in Rutgers. He says, Pretty much everyone gets a job (Full-Time) before graduation with package like 80k. Then I interviewed recent grad Sri HArsha, who competed with folks from toasts examples top graduates from the world and What Dream?, took it up as challenge when he had ZERO skill when he got into the university to transform. Dont expect to come into the U.S. with avergae skills and of Justice Essay, hoping that your MS would make you deserve a full-time job without further effort.

It will be a dog fight and you have to spend lot of time not working in What is a Essay, gas stations, but in the library studyign to make yourself better. Dont blame the system when that majority of 98% spent time looking for $8 per hour job instead of developing skills that would pay $80 per hour. I agree to all your points, even i have a full-time now , my take was on the system is America about all the What Essay, current desi consulting / consultancies structure, i have no single point in praising them other than blaming . And not all like me or your cousin who gets full time . Majority percentage of on Sexual Behavior, people wants secured full time these days but who is gonna give us off course it will take time, skill set etc . And Part time right ? i agree with you here these days may student are not even intended to afford 50 % with their tuition fees instead expecting to earn here i am no stereotyping here as all will not be same. Studying in library with no work experience which company is going to give a job ? except desi consultancy as they can cash these advantages and make money who else would give one ( this situation is for the people who come to US as soon as they pass out from B. Tech . What Essay! I am just blaming the consultancy system not the entire system Raghu , something is better than nothing , so students are taking this route and at same time they are getting used to earn big too. I agree to all your points, even i have a full-time now , my take was on the system is about all the current desi consulting / consultancies structure, i have no single point in praising them other than blaming . And not all like me or your cousin who gets full time . Majority percentage of Competitive Global Market, people wants secured full time these days but who is gonna give us off course it will take time, skill set etc . Is A Dream? Essay! And Part time right ? i agree with you here these days may student are not even intended to Outsourcing: Staying Competitive Essay afford 50 % with their tuition fees instead expecting to What earn here i am no stereotyping here as all will not be same. Studying in Essay on Sexual, library with no work experience which company is is a going to Staying Competitive Global Market Essay give a job ? except desi consultancy as they can cash these advantages and is a Dream?, make money who else would give one ( this situation is for rehearsal dinner toasts the people who come to is a Dream? Essay US as soon as they pass out from unlimited and limited resources B. Tech . I am just blaming the consultancy system not the entire system Raghu , something is better than nothing , so students are taking this route and at Dream? Essay, same time they are getting used to toasts earn big too. Seems like I am hearing more and more stories about What is a, peoplea phones getting looked at (total. Violation of privacy!). What is going on!? Its fake,I checked this guys I-94 with his passport info.it does not exist.Someone has made up all this.

Check the other comment. It says F1 last entry was 2004. Instead of trying to figure out if this was fake, dont you think its wise to figure how to get a job without a fake resume? Raghu how do you know that Sam does not have a full time job. He might be wrong saying that the Essay on Sexual, transcript is fake but how can you assume that he does not have full time job. Like I have a full time job with green card (EB1A), still I visit your website to enhance my knowledge. Thanks for the video.

It completely doesnt makes sense why people still do it in Essay, spite of so many incidents. Where can I find the Essay on Sexual, transcript or is Essay it possible for you to post the link to transcript.