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Plato#039;s Republic Republic [Politeia], Plato - Essay. Greek philosophical dialogues, written c. 3857-60 b.c. Regarded as Plato's most important work, the The Phenomena of Female Republic has long been studied as a seminal text of the Western literary and philosophical canon. And Work. In this group of philosophical dialogues, Plato uses a conversational prose format to explore the nature of society, seeking to define the characteristics of an ideal society, or republic. Inspired by the teachings of his mentor, Socrates, in the Republic Plato theorizes that the The Phenomena Gangs Essay answer to the Process in a Composition Course Essay, society's ills lies not in reforming political systems but in adopting philosophic principles as guidelines. To implement and oversee these principles in society, Plato proposes the of Female Gangs Essay creation of what he calls ruler philosophersindividuals who will lead society into an ethical existence based on of Trade on the predetermined principles that are expounded in the Republic.

In addition to the Republic, Plato, who founded and ran an academy in Athens for many years, wrote a number of other dialogues as well as numerous letters. Because of the of Female Gangs Essay influence of the ideas expressed in Impacts of Trade South African Essay various dialogues, including the Republic , Plato has come to occupy a key position in the history of western philosophy and is often called the father of philosophic idealism. Additionally, he is lauded as a preeminent prose stylist and the Republic is regarded as one of the most exemplary texts in this genre, praised for The Phenomena, its craftsmanship and poetic qualities. A citizen of Athens, Plato was born in approximately 428 b.c. and lived in a period of zelda political tumult marked by Gangs, the recent death of the great Athenian statesman Pericles in 429 b.c. and how did fitzgerald die, the strife of the Peloponnesian War, which lasted from 431 to 404 b.c. The era also exhibited remarkable cultural vitality and included the of Female Gangs Essay great dramatists Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes, of whom Plato was a younger contemporary. Plato was descended from a distinguished family of statesmen; his mother's cousin Critias and his maternal uncle Charmides, both portrayed in eponymous dialogues, belonged to the Thirty Tyrants, the oligarchs who ruled Athens in cooperation with Sparta after the Peloponnesian War. The unsettled political climate during the period gave rise to a class of itinerant professional instructors called Sophists who made their living teaching rhetoric and public speakingskills prized in the political arenaas well as geometry, astronomy, and arithmetical calculation.

Socrateswhom the young Plato met while the elder Athenian discoursed in the streets and homes of the city on Life and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay topics related to the virtuous lifeobjected to the aims of the Sophists, asserting that they manipulated language for their own ends, obfuscating and confusing in order to succeed in argumentation, rather than elucidating and searching for truth. Known primarily through Plato's dialogues, Socrates advocated a quest for self-knowledge and cultivation of the The Phenomena soul, and claimed that contemplation is the noblest human activity. Plato's own career as a writer spanned the nursing theories greater part of his life. All of his known works, including thirty-four dialogues of The Phenomena Gangs varying length and thirteen epistles, are extant. Of these, the Republic is application of middle to practice, considered his greatest work because of the representative nature of of Female Essay its content as well as because of its importance as the premier example of ancient Greek prose. Plot and Major Characters. Composed as a dramatic dialogue among various characters, the principal among them Socrates, the Republic is and techniques of persuasion, divided into ten main books. The Phenomena Of Female Essay. This division, as scholars have repeatedly pointed out, is somewhat artificial and Impacts of Trade Unions South, was dictated more by the limitations of book production in Gangs Essay ancient timesin this case, the amount of Learning the Process of Writing in a First-Year Course material that would fit onto a papyrus rollrather than any internal break in the sequence of the argument. The text begins with a prelude, where the main characters and setting are introduced and the subject of the dialoguejustice, or right conductexplained briefly.

In addition to Socrates, who is the main narrator of the of Female dialogue, other characters include Glaucon and Adeimantus, elder brothers of on Vacation Plato, and Polemarchus, a resident of Athens at whose house the conversation takes place. Also present are Thrasymachus, a Sophist and orator as well as the main respondent in Book I; Lysias and of Female Gangs, Euthydemus, Polemarchus's brothers; and fitzgerald die, Niceratus, Charmantides, and Cleitophon. Ostensibly a discussion about the nature of justice, expounded on first by Thrasymachus, who states the Sophist position that justice and its related conventions are rules that were imposed on society by those in power, the rest of the dialogue is mainly a response from The Phenomena of Female Essay Socrates to Essay Vietnam: The Perfect, this statement. In essence, the The Phenomena Essay argument to prove the how did die inherent good of justice leads Plato, via Socrates, to lay out The Phenomena his vision of the in a First-Year Course ideal state, covering a wide range of topics, including the social, educational, psychological, moral, and philosophical aspects of the republic. The main intention of the Republic is to of Female Essay, define the principles that govern an Life and Work of Dorothea, ideal society. In doing so, Plato touches upon of Female Gangs many important ideas about education, ethics, politics, and morality in this text. Impacts Of Trade Unions On The African. Scholars have pointed out that the main argument of the Republic is partly a response to the political unrest and instability Plato witnessed in contemporary Athenian society. Following the end of the Peloponnesian War, Athens became a democracy of sorts, led mostly by laymen, who, in Plato's view, tended to implement policies based more on of Female Essay popular demand rather than necessity or principle. Thus, Plato developed a perspective that viewed all contemporary forms of government as corrupt, theorizing that the only hope for finding true justice both for Learning in a Composition Course Essay, society and the individual lies in philosophy, and that mankind will have no respite from trouble until either real philosophers gain political power, or politicians become by some miracle true philosophers. This is the central theme of the Republic. In the context of this premise, Plato touches upon several major issues, focusing the The Phenomena of Female Gangs most significant discussions on the nature and definition of ethics, education, and the organization of society and politics, as well as religion and the Process First-Year, philosophy. In contrast to the Sophists, who advocated the primacy of rhetoric over moral training, Plato proposes the creation of an educational system that focuses on the molding of character, with the ultimate goal of the educator being not just imparting knowledge, but also the ability to turn the mind's eye to the light so that it can see for Essay, itself. According to Plato, one of the main problems of his society was the inability to distinguish true reality from reflections or images of reality.

Plato employs his famous allegory of the cave to illustrate how mankind learns and can be mislead by the manner in which he learns. Plato's preferred educational system strictly controls the upbringing of the ruling class in order to help them differentiate between appearance and reality and form correct views. He advocates the study of mathematics and how did fitzgerald die, abstract ideas rather than art, music, or literature because the latter deal with representation of ideas, not ideas themselves; he even goes so far as to The Phenomena of Female Gangs, advocate censorship of art, when necessary, in the service of proper education. Another powerful focus in the Republic is the discussion of justice. Responding primarily to the Sophists' position, that morality is important only because of the social and personal consequences that follow, Plato contends that morality and the Process Essay, justice are key components of an ideal society and that they must underlie all areas of human interaction.

The Republic has a unique place in The Phenomena of Female Essay the history of Western literature because of its importance as a literary, political, as well as philosophical text. Its reception in early commentaries was particularly positive and for many centuries it was regarded as an ideal text, based on its literary and thematic merits. A. Application Range Theories. E. The Phenomena Of Female. Taylor's introduction to application of middle nursing theories, his translation of the The Phenomena Gangs Republic is an example of this critical approach. Later commentators have been more critical, however, and on Vietnam: Place!, many twentieth-century studies of the Republic have emphasized the totalitarian nature of Plato's society, critiquing him for the degree of The Phenomena of Female power he invests in the philosopher rulers. In her introduction to the Republic Julia Annas remarks on of Dorothea Dix Essay the power of the text and the persuasiveness of Plato's assessments, noting that in The Phenomena Gangs some ways, the systematic treatment of such important subjects as morality, politics, and knowledge is designed to sweep the reader along, often leading first-time readers to either accept the premise of the text without question or to reject it entirely. After further study, though, writes Annas, the Republic reveals itself as a work of great complexity, and how did zelda die, thus a text that rewards detailed analysis. In his assessment of the role of the good as it is explained by Plato, Mitchell Miller also comments on the multilayered nature of ideas presented in the Republic and focuses his discussion by providing context from of Female Gangs other contemporary sources of Greek prose. Other modern studies of Plato have also tended to focus on specific ideas explored in the Republic.

For example, R. E. Allen (see Further Reading) explores the speech of Glaucon to highlight the idea of justice and Life and Work, morality, while James O'Rourke ruminates about the of Female Essay respective positions accorded to Impacts Unions on the South Economy, myth and logic in Plato's ideal society. In his essay on slavery as it is Gangs, defined in how did fitzgerald the Republic, Brian Calvert reviews other critical commentaries on this issue, concluding that Plato's republic could not contain slaves. Critical commentaries on the Republic continue to flourish, attesting to the sustaining power of the ideas contained in the text, whether they relate to society, politics, religion, education, or human nature. Access our Plato's Republic Study Guide for Free. Apology (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Charmides (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Crito (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Euthyphro (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Gorgias (dialogue) before 387 b.c.

Hippias Major (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Hippias Minor (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Ion (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Laches (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Lysis (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Protagoras (dialogue) before 387 b.c. Republic, Book I (dialogue) before 387 b.c. (The entire section is 257 words.) Get Free Access to this Plato#039;s Republic Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.

Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on The Phenomena Essay your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for Impacts on the South Economy, free. SOURCE: Taylor, A. E. The Phenomena Essay. The Republic. In Plato: The Man and His Work, pp. 263-98. London, Eng.: Methuen, 1948. [ In the Life and Work following essay, first published in The Phenomena of Female Gangs 1926 and revised in 1937, Taylor provides a detailed analysis of the ideas, language, and philosophy of Plato's Republic.] The Republic is at once too long a work, and too well known by numerous excellent summaries and commentaries, to application of middle range nursing, require or permit analysis on the scale we have found necessary in dealing with the Phaedo or Protagoras.

We must be content to presume the student's acquaintance with its contents, and to offer some general considerations of the relation of its main. (The entire section is 19658 words.) Get Free Access to this Plato#039;s Republic Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and The Phenomena of Female Gangs, thousands more. SOURCE: Lerner, Ralph.

Introduction to Averroes on Plato's Republic, translated by Ralph Lerner, pp. xiii-xxviii. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974. [ In the range to practice following introduction to the medieval Arabic philosopher Averroes's commentary on Plato's Republic, Lerner discusses Averroes's approach to the text, noting that despite the differences in their religious backgrounds, Averroes exhibits a deep appreciation for Plato's philosophy. ] Why a Muslim like Averroes should choose to write on Plato's Republic is not immediately self-evident. Of what use is this pagan closet philosophy to men who already hold what they believe to be the inestimable. (The entire section is 6273 words.) SOURCE: Annas, Julia. Introduction to An Introduction to Plato's Republic, pp. 1-15. Oxford, Eng.: Clarendon Press, 1981.

[ In the following essay, Annas presents an overview of the Republic in the context of politics and philosophy during Plato's time, also focusing on Socrates' influence on The Phenomena of Female Gangs Plato. ] The Republic is Plato's best-known work, and there are ways in range nursing which it is too famous for The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, its own good. It gives us systematic answers to application nursing theories to practice, a whole range of questions about morality, politics, knowledge, and metaphysics, and the book is written in a way designed to sweep the reader along and give a general grasp of the way Plato sees all these questions as. (The entire section is 7141 words.) SOURCE: Miller, Mitchell. Platonic Provocations: Reflections on the Soul and the Good in the Republic. In Platonic Investigations, edited by Dominic J. O'Meara, pp. 163-93.

Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1985. [ In the following essay, Miller explicates the fundamental philosophical positions adopted by Plato in the Republic.] If we do not understand [the Good], then even the greatest possible knowledge of other things is of no benefit to us. The aim of this reflection is to explore the nexus of notoriously obscure notions that lies at the center of. (The entire section is 16239 words.) SOURCE: Calvert, Brian. Slavery in Plato's Republic. Classical Quarterly ns. 37, no. 2 (1987): 367-72. [ In the The Phenomena Gangs Essay following essay, Calvert summarizes the critical debate over whether Plato's ideal republic would include slaves or not, concluding that although the standard critical view supports the existence of of Trade Unions on the South Economy slavery in of Female the republic, there is an equally balanced argument opposing the existence of the Impacts of Trade South practice. ] For a number of years, in the not too distant past, there was a lively debate between Plato's defenders and critics over the question of whether his Republic contained slaves. Gangs. However, since the appearance of an Life, article by. (The entire section is 3780 words.)

James O#039;Rourke (essay date summer 1987) SOURCE: O'Rourke, James. Mythos and Logos in the Republic. Clio 16, no. 4 (summer 1987): 381-96. [ Characterizing the Republic as a foundational text in Western thought, O'Rourke contends that the emphasis accorded to logic over myth in this work imbues it with an inherent structural instability. ] The Republic is perhaps the foundational text in Western thought that gives dominion to logos over mythos. This paper is about the instability of that hierarchy in the text of the Republic, and the consequences of that instability.

The justifications Socrates gives in the latter part of the Republic for why the. (The entire section is 7342 words.) Anthony Skillen (essay date July 1992) SOURCE: Skillen, Anthony. Fiction Year Zero: Plato's Republic. The British Journal of Aesthetics 32, no. 3 (July 1992): 201-08. [ In the following essay, Skillen presents an account of Plato's views on Gangs fiction as they are laid out in the Republic.] Then it will be our first business to supervise the of Dorothea Dix Essay production of stories, and choose only those we think suitable, and reject the rest the worst fault possible, especially if the fiction is an ugly one, is misrepresenting the nature of gods and heroes, like a portrait painter whose portraits bear no resemblance to their originals (The entire section is 3793 words.)

SOURCE: Aune, Bruce. The Unity of Plato's Republic. Ancient Philosophy 17, no. 2 (fall 1997): 291-308. [ In the following essay, Aune investigates charges of structural disunity between the The Phenomena of Female two books of the Republic, maintaining that a close examination of the two parts reveals a style and method of inquiry in part II that are very similar to those of die part I. ] How well does Republic i fit together with the books that follow? Does it contribute to, or detract from, the unity of the dialogue as a philosophical work? There is still disagreement about this matter. Of Female Essay. 1 Irwin 1995, 169 speaks of application of middle to practice book 1 as the first of two long. (The entire section is 10235 words.) Elizabeth F. The Phenomena Gangs. Cooke (essay date spring 1999)

SOURCE: Cooke, Elizabeth F. The Moral and and Work of Dorothea, Intellectual Development of the Philosopher in Plato's Republic. Ancient Philosophy 19, no. 1 (spring 1999): 37-44. [ In the following essay, Cooke comments on of Female Essay Plato's view of the role of philosophy in everyday life, stating that for Plato, philosophy is not an abstract concept, but one that draws from all aspects of life, including the spiritual, moral, and intellectual. ] The metaphysical knowledge required for the philosopher is often seen as merely abstract and theoretical, though the Dix Essay philosophers share in the same early character education as that of the spirited auxiliaries. This is not a mere oversight by. (The entire section is 3589 words.) Donald Morrison (essay date spring 2001) SOURCE: Morrison, Donald. The Happiness of the City and the Happiness of the The Phenomena of Female Gangs Individual in Plato's Republic. Ancient Philosophy 21, no. 1 (spring 2001): 1-24. [ In the following essay, Morrison reflects on the relationship between the happiness of individuals and the happiness of the city as it is outlined in the Republic.] Is the polis, as conceived by Plato in the Republic, some kind of theories to practice super-individual, or is it nothing over and above its component individuals?

Is the happiness of the polis a separate and transcendent value, for of Female Gangs Essay, which the happiness of its citizens might be sacrificed, or not? Answers to these questions are often grouped into. (The entire section is 12492 words.) David N. McNeill (essay date December 2001) SOURCE: McNeill, David N. Of Trade On The Economy Essay. Human Discourse, Eros, and The Phenomena Essay, Madness in Plato's Republic. Learning The Process In A Essay. Review of Metaphysics 55, (December 2001): 235-68. [ In the following essay, McNeill compares three variations on the idea of eros as presented in Plato's Republic, Phaedrus and Symposium.] In book 9 of the Republic, Socrates tells Adeimantus that the tyrant-makers manage to defeat the relatives of the nascent tyrant in the battle over the young man's soul by contriving to make in him some eros, a sort of great winged drone, to be the leader of the idle desires. This leader of the soul, Socrates claims, (The entire section is 13291 words.) Allen, R. E. The Speech of Gangs Essay Glaucon in Plato's Republic. Journal of the History of Philosophy 25, no. 1 (January 1987): 3-11. Outline of Plato's position on how did fitzgerald the good as it is The Phenomena of Female Essay, explicated via the of Trade on the Economy dialogue between Glaucon and Socrates in of Female the second book of the Republic. Kahn, Charles H. Plato's Theory of Desire. The Review of Metaphysics 41, no.1, issue no.

161 (September 1987): 77-103. Investigates Plato's theory of the psyche and desire as it is expressed in the Republic, noting that Plato is the first western philosopher to deal with these topics in a systematic manner. . (The entire section is 379 words.) Plato's Republic Homework Help Questions. The main theme of Platos allegory of the cave is that we humans tend not to understand the true reality of Learning the Process in a First-Year Composition Course our world. We think that we understand what we are looking at and sensing in of Female Gangs our. Plato favored an aristocracy ruled by philosopher kings. He did not believe most societies could maintain it though.

Platos aristocracy was based on merit. The leaders were strong. Plato's ideal society is built on the ideal of justice. Just as he believed the soul was composed of three hierarchical partsappetitive, rational, and spiritualhe believed a just society. Well, hate may be too strong of a word, but he certainly wasn't a fan. The reason is because Plato was convinced that not all people had the terms of persuasion intellectual ability to rule. It is an elitist. The Ring of Gyges was an oral legend told to Plato by his brother Glaucon, and The Phenomena Gangs Essay, recounted in The Republic.

The story concerned a magic ring that made its wearer invisible; this allowed the.

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The Relationship Between Homework Compliance and Therapy Outcomes: An Updated Meta-Analysis. The current study was an updated meta-analysis of manuscripts since the year 2000 examining the effects of homework compliance on treatment outcome. A total of 23 studies encompassing 2,183 subjects were included. Results indicated a significant relationship between homework compliance and treatment outcome suggesting a small to medium effect ( r = .26; 95% CI = .19.33). Moderator analyses were conducted to The Phenomena of Female determine the differential effect size of and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay homework on treatment outcome by target symptoms (e.g., depression; anxiety), source of homework rating (e.g., client; therapist), timing of homework rating (e.g., retroactive vs. contemporaneous), and type of homework rating (e.g., Likert; total homeworks completed). Results indicated that effect sizes were robust across target symptoms, but differed by source of of Female Gangs homework rating, timing of Impacts on the South Economy Essay homework rating, and The Phenomena of Female Essay type of how did zelda die homework rating.

Specifically, studies utilizing combined client and of Female Gangs therapist ratings of compliance had significantly higher mean effect size relative to those using therapist only assessments and those using objective assessments. Further, studies that rated the percentage of homeworks completed had a significantly lower mean effect size compared to range theories to practice studies using Likert ratings, and retroactive assessments had higher effect size than contemporaneous assessments. Cognitive and Essay behavior therapies are often considered first-line treatments for a number of and Work of Dorothea psychiatric disorders, with various meta-analyses demonstrating the Gangs, efficacy of these therapies for conditions such as anxiety disorders (Hofmann and Smits 2008 ; Otto et al. 2004 ), depression (Dobson 1989 ; Spek et al. South. 2007 ), and substance-use disorders (Duttra et al. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs Essay. 2008 ). While cognitive and behavior therapies have been established on theoretical foundations, the rhetorical terms, efficacy of these interventions may lie in their strong history of utilizing homework assignments as a mechanism toward producing beneficial treatment outcomes. That is, practice of skills outside of therapy (i.e., homework) allows clients to Gangs Essay master the Life Dix Essay, skills believed necessary to affect symptoms, generalize these skills to their natural settings, and Gangs promote prolonged symptom improvement through extending therapeutic aspects of treatment beyond the completion of therapy (Kazantzis and Lampropoulos 2002 ). Indeed, the importance of of middle to practice homework for producing positive therapy outcome was demonstrated in a previous meta-analysis (Kazantzis et al. 2000 ). In their analysis, a Pearson r effect size of .22 was reported for Gangs Essay the relationship between homework compliance and therapy outcome in a sample of 1,327 subjects across 27 studies.

These results suggest that greater compliance with homework is associated with beneficial treatment outcome, with the the Process of Writing in a Composition, strength of the association falling between Cohens small and medium effect size cutoffs (Cohen 1988 ; Kraemer et al. 2003 ). Kazantzis et al. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs. ( 2000 ) analysis was the first study to examine the of middle range nursing theories to practice, type of homework activity and the nature of the clients presenting problem as moderating variables of homework effectiveness. The presenting problems were categorized as depression, anxiety-related disorders, and other outpatient. The results of this meta-analysis showed the following mean effect sizes for of Female problem type: depression (.22), anxiety (.24), and other outpatient (.17), with homework effects being significantly greater for the treatment of depression than the other outpatient sample. Additionally, results indicated that effect sizes were robust across the on The Perfect Vacation, type of homework completed (no single type, relaxation, or social skills) and time of The Phenomena of Female Essay homework compliance assessment (regular intervals or posttreatment), but differed by the source of homework compliance assessment. Specifically, studies that utilized client and of Dorothea Dix Essay therapist ratings had a significantly lower mean effect size relative to those using objective measures of homework compliance.

In the The Phenomena of Female, 8 years since Kazantzis, Deane, and Ronans meta-analysis on the effects of homework assignments on treatment outcome, homework has continued to and Work Dix Essay remain both a traditional and integral component of contemporary manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches (Coon and The Phenomena Thompson 2003 , p. 53). Further, there continues to Learning the Process of Writing in a Course be support for the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral interventions to prevent the of Female, onset, relapse, and recurrence of a number of psychological disorders (Hollon 2003 ). The meta-analysis conducted by die, Kazantzis et al. ( 2000 ) included homework-related studies spanning from 1980, 1 year following Becks emphasis on The Phenomena Gangs Essay, regularly using homework in on Vietnam: Place!, cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression (Beck et al. 1979 ), through 1998, a time when homework in The Phenomena Gangs Essay, therapy had been incorporated into a more diverse range of clinical conditions (Kazantzis et al. 2000 ). Therefore, a significant amount of variance as a function of Learning of Writing in a First-Year Composition time may exist within this analysis. The present study is an updated meta-analysis of the relationship between homework compliance and Gangs Essay treatment outcome. We hypothesized that greater homework compliance would be significantly associated with improved treatment outcome. Given that the how did fitzgerald die, previous meta-analysis found some evidence that targeted symptoms and source of homework ratings may moderate the effect of homework compliance, we further examined whether treatment target (e.g., symptoms of anxiety, depression, etc.) and Gangs Essay source of rating (e.g., therapist, objective) moderated the Unions on the African Economy Essay, relationship between homework compliance and of Female Gangs Essay therapy outcome. A novel aspect of this meta-analysis is that we examine the moderating effect of rating type (e.g., Likert rating, percentage of homeworks completed). To identify candidate studies for inclusion in Life and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay, our review, the following inclusion/exclusion criteria were used: (a) studies must have been published between January, 2000 and The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay September, 2008, (b) the study must have been published in English, and zelda fitzgerald (c) the study must have been a treatment study examining pre- and post-treatment outcome and measured some aspect of homework compliance. Guided by these criteria, we searched PsychArticles, PsychInfo, and Medline databases for journal manuscripts published between January 2000 and September 2008 using the key terms homework and compliance and (therapy or psychotherapy or psychosocial intervention or intervention). Gangs Essay. From this search 87 articles were found.

We read the Impacts of Trade Economy, abstracts from these articles to of Female Gangs identify potential studies for inclusion as well as manuscript citations to identify further manuscripts that may have initially been missed in our initial search. Articles that were eliminated dealt with methods for improving homework compliance rather than the impact of Impacts of Trade Unions South Essay homework compliance on The Phenomena of Female Gangs, treatment outcome. Additionally, articles that were book chapters or dissertations were excluded. Twenty-three studies encompassing 2,183 subjects met the zelda, inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis and were therefore included in of Female, the present study. Classification and Coding Systems. Primary treatment target these included 5 categories: (a) depression, (b) anxiety, (c) substance use, (d) mixed (e.g., both anxiety and depression), and how did fitzgerald (e) other (e.g., functioning); Source of The Phenomena homework rating Four categories were included in this rating: (a) therapist (Likert rating), (b) client (Likert rating), (c) objective (e.g., number of assignments turned in), and how did fitzgerald (d) client and therapist (e.g., both client and therapist rated homework compliance and average ratings were used). Type of homework rating Three categories of homework rating were coded: (a) Likert scale, (b) number of of Female assignments completed, and terms and techniques (c) percentage of homework completed. Timing of homework rating Two categories of timing were coded: (a) retroactive ratings of homework compliance (e.g., a single rating at the end of treatment), and The Phenomena of Female Essay (b) contemporaneous ratings of homework compliance (e.g., assessment of homework at and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay, each therapy session). Year of study In this analysis, we used weighted regression to determine if the linear variable year of The Phenomena Gangs Essay publication moderated the effect size of homework on outcome.

Effect size r was used to characterize the relationship between homework compliance and therapy outcome for each of the application nursing theories to practice, 20 studies. Gangs Essay. For studies that did not report correlation coefficients ( r ), available study statistics were converted to r according to standard formulas (Hunter and Schmidt 1990 ). As mentioned above, effect sizes were determined by two independent reviewers and for the majority of studies agreement was reached. In three cases, discrepancies were determined by discussion between the two reviewers and of middle range nursing theories a third reviewer. For those studies where available statistics were not readily converted to r , we used the standardized regression coefficient ( ? ; n = 7) or semi-partial correlation coefficient ( n = 3) as a proxy for r (Peterson and Brown 2005 ). Once study-level correlation coefficients were calculated they were weighted, aggregated, and their heterogeneity was assessed with the Q statistic (Hedges and The Phenomena Gangs Essay Olkin 1985 ) using a random effects model. Description of Impacts on the African Essay studies included in the analysis. Timing of assessment. Bogalo and Essay Moss-Morris ( 2006 ) Other (Global relief) Burns and Spangler ( 2000 ) Cash and Hrabosky ( 2003 ) Other (Body image distress) Coon and Thompson ( 2003 ) Other (Psychotic Symptoms)

Other (Everyday Functioning) Hughes and Kendall ( 2007 ) Schmidt and Woolaway-Bickel ( 2000 ) Westra and Dozois ( 2006 ) Woody and fitzgerald die Adessky ( 2002 ) Effects of Homework Compliance on Therapy Outcome. The overall effect size r between homework compliance and treatment outcome was .26 (95% CI = .19.33; P .001), indicating that across treatment targets, sources of homework ratings, and type of homework ratings, greater homework compliance was associated with improved treatment outcome. The overall effect fell within the small-to-medium range (Cohen 1988 ). This result supported our first hypothesis. Effect sizes ranged from .08 to .93, and the homogeneity analysis indicated significant heterogeneity in results (Q = 39.38, df = 19, P = .004). The fail-safe n (Rosenthal 1979 ) was computed to be 618. Mean effect sizes moderator analyses. Client and therapist. Homework rating type.

Timing of of Female homework. Randomized clinical trial? Exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) Bogalo and Life and Work Moss-Morris ( 2006 ) Self-help manual or control. Irritable bowel symptom severity. Burns and Spangler ( 2000 ) CBT alone or CBT with medication. BDI and HSCL-90 depression score.

CBT or treatment as usual. Most consecutive days of abstinence; % days of abstinence during treatment; % of urine specimens negative for all drugs. 34.8 (tx group only) % of cocaine positive urines, self-report daily frequency of cocaine use. Cash and Hrabosky ( 2003 ) Coon and Thompson ( 2003 ) Medication alone, CBT alone or CBT with medication. Mean age or range. Randomized clinical trial? CBT or psychosocial intervention. BDI, HAM-D, ESSI, perceived social support scale.

Mean sessions = 17.8 (8.1) PANSS change score. Gaynor et al. Of Female. (2006) BDI and and Work HDRS scores. % of cocaine positive urines. CBT or treatment as usual. Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS), UCSD Performance Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) Hughes and Kendall ( 2007 ) CBT or waitlist control condition.

CBT or mutual support interventions. BDI and HRSD scores. BDI, BAI, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) Randomized clinical trial? Schmidt and Woolaway-Bickel ( 2000 ) Clinician ratings: Panic frequency, panic intensity, anticipatory anxiety, and impairment. Self-report: SPRAS, MI-Accompanied, MI-Alone, Disability, BDI. 26 sessions (over 712 months) Clutter Image Rating (CIR), Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), and Clinicians Global Impression (CGI)

Westra and Dozois ( 2006 ) CBT with Motivational Interviewing (MI) or CBT w/o MI. 8 sessions, twice weekly. Anxiety Change Expectancy Scale (ACES), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale-Brief (FNEB), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), and BDI-II. ACES, ASI, BDI-II, BAI, PSWQ, FNEB. 12, 14, and 15 sessions (3 tx locations) BAT and target ratings. Woody and Gangs Essay Adessky ( 2002 ) SPAI, QOL, SR composite, observer composite. Yovel and Safren ( 2007 ) CBT + continued psychopharm. Our second moderator analysis examined the source of homework ratings (e.g., therapist, client). Results of this analysis indicated a significant moderating effect of homework source ( Q = 13.83, df = 3, P = .003).

Studies that utilized combined client and therapist ratings had a significantly larger mean effect size than those that utilized objective ratings ( P .001). No significant differences were observed between the and Work, other sources of homework ratings. Our third moderator analysis was for the type of homework compliance rating (e.g., Likert scale). Results of this analysis indicated that type of homework rating significantly moderated the relationship between homework compliance and therapy outcome ( Q = 9.51, df = 2, P = .009). The Phenomena Of Female. Post-hoc analyses indicated that studies utilizing Likert ratings of application homework compliance had a significantly higher mean effect size compared to studies using a percentage rating (i.e., percentage of Gangs homeworks completed) of how did fitzgerald homework compliance ( P = .002). No significant differences were observed between Likert and Essay total number of homeworks completed or between total number completed and to practice percent completed (P -values .05). Our fourth analysis was for timing of homework compliance (e.g., retroactive vs. The Phenomena. contemporaneous).

Results of this moderator analysis indicated that retroactive ratings of homework compliance (e.g., a single rating of on Vacation compliance provided at the end of treatment) demonstrated a significantly higher effect size than contemporaneous ratings (e.g., ratings made after each therapy session; Q = 11.90, df = 1, P .001). Specifically, the mean correlation between homework compliance and outcome was .36 for retroactive ratings and Gangs Essay .19 for contemporaneous ratings. A final analysis examined the moderating effect of Learning the Process in a First-Year publication year. Results of this analysis indicated that year of publication did not moderate the effect of Gangs Essay homework on treatment outcome ( P = .264). This meta-analysis examined the relationship between homework compliance and treatment outcome across 23 studies and over 2,000 participants. Similar to results found by Kazantzis et al. Life. ( 2000 ), greater homework compliance was associated with improved treatment outcome ( r = .27). These results were consistent across a variety of target symptoms including symptoms of anxiety ( r = .22), depression ( r = .24), and substance use ( r = .27), suggesting that compliance with homework is an important component of psychotherapy regardless of the target symptoms.

Indeed, this finding is consistent with cognitive and behavioral theories, which suggest that mastery of skills learned in therapy via practice of Gangs such skills is important for producing positive treatment outcomes (i.e., improving symptoms). In the present study, the of Writing First-Year Course Essay, two most common sources of homework ratings were therapists and The Phenomena Gangs Essay objective ratings (e.g., counting the number or percentage of zelda die homework turned in), and we found that the source of homework ratings moderated the relationship between homework compliance and treatment outcome. Specifically, when both clients and their therapists provided homework ratings, effect sizes were significantly higher ( r = .35) than when objective ratings were used ( r = .16). However, because only two studies utilized both client and therapist ratings, these results should be interpreted with caution. Gangs. Indeed, the two studies that utilized therapist and patient ratings of compliance used quite different methods for assessing homework compliance and of Trade South African Economy Essay had quite different sample sizes.

Moreover, our analysis averaged the therapist and Gangs Essay patient rating of homework compliance, despite the fact that these ratings may not always be strongly correlated. Indeed, the study by Westra and Impacts Unions on the Dozois ( 2006 ) reported only of Female Gangs Essay a modest correlation between therapist and Impacts Unions South African Economy Essay client compliance ratings. Again, given the small number of studies utilizing this method and the limitations mentioned here, readers should take caution about interpreting these findings as particularly meaningful. These findings might be interpreted in a number of different ways. First, they may suggest that future studies of this relationship should utilize both types of ratings, at least on the assumption that this effect size discrepancy is real. Alternatively, this discrepancy in findings might highlight the inherent limitations of using subjective ratings as a means of assessing homework compliance. For example, therapists who provide homework ratings may give better scores to those who are doing better in of Female Essay, therapy (i.e., hes doing better, so he must be doing his homework). There were no significant differences between groups when comparing other sources of Essay on Vacation homework ratings.

However, although objective ratings did not differ from client alone or therapist alone ratings, it is interesting to note that our findings differ from those of Kazantzis et al. ( 2000 ), who found that objective ratings had a higher overall correlation with treatment outcome. This may be due to the difference in defining objective assessment between the two meta-analyses. Specifically, whereas Kazantzis defined objective as an electronic marker of homework compliance, our analysis considered objective to mean studies that counted the number of homeworks turned into therapists. Studies that used Likert scales to The Phenomena Gangs rate homework compliance had a significantly higher mean effect size ( r = .31) than those rating the percentage of and Work homeworks completed ( r = .17). Of Female Essay. Further, studies using Likert scales were higher, but not significantly so, than studies using the Unions South African Economy Essay, number of homeworks completed. While this finding is difficult to explain, it may be due to Gangs Essay the fact that Likert ratings might inadvertently reflect quality and quantity ratings, whereas a summary variable such as percent or total homeworks completed reflect quantity only.

For example, during the course of therapy, clients may be asked to of Writing in a First-Year Composition Essay regularly (e.g., once each day) practice homework. However, they may present at the next therapy session and describe one excellent (and extremely beneficial) example of Gangs Essay how he/she practiced homework over the past week. Therapists who rated client homework from 0 (poor) to 6 (outstanding) might rate this compliance relatively high on the scale. In contrast, clients who report doing homework every day but who had difficulty with the assignment or who described it as unhelpful might be rated relatively lower in terms of of middle range nursing theories compliance. Further, Likert scales provide the therapist and the client with a range to rank homework completion. The Phenomena Essay. This can be opposed to percentage of homeworks completed and number of homeworks completed, which are often scored on a dichotomous (completed or did not complete) scale. If a client completes part of a homework assignment, the client is given some credit for compliance, even if the effort is minimal. Further, a timing effect was found for contemporaneous versus retrospective ratings of homework completion in that retrospective ratings were a significantly better predictor of outcome than contemporaneous ratings. This may have been due to terms a bias effect for The Phenomena of Female retroactive ratings. For example, it is possible that patients who have appeared to have done well in of Writing in a First-Year Essay, therapy could have been rated by of Female Gangs, their therapist or themselves as more compliant with homework assignments.

These results may provide insight into of Dorothea differences in objective versus subjective ratings (i.e., higher effect size for subjective ratings than objective assessments), in that objective ratings are most typically contemporaneous by nature (e.g., paperwork that was turned into and/or discussed with the therapist), and therefore appear more reliable in assessing compliance than retroactive or subjective ratings of The Phenomena Essay compliance. These issues (objective vs. subjective; Likert vs. non-Likert) highlight the important issue of application of middle range how we define homework compliance. The Phenomena. Specifically, they highlight the important issue of the purpose of conducting a homework analyses, which is to discover the true nature of the relationship between homework compliance and of persuasion treatment outcome, not findings ways of manipulating methods to demonstrate larger effects. Gangs Essay. Determining the true effect indeed involves finding increasingly objective, or bias-free methods of assessing homework compliance. To this end, Kazantzis et al. ( 2004 ) has described novel methods of assessing homework in therapy research (e.g., the Homework Rating Scale), which include the assessment of homework quality. However, there has yet to be any consistent use of these methods. Zelda Fitzgerald Die. We strongly recommend new research incorporate these new methods of assessing homework compliance, as well as develop more objective and accurate means of assessing homework quantity and quality in The Phenomena of Female Gangs, treatment research and outcome. There are several limitations to the current review. As previously mentioned, there have been problems with the objective assessment of theories homework compliance. Additionally, the current review did not examine demographic moderators (i.e., age, gender, ethnicity, education) or the severity of psychopathology (e.g., Major Depressive Disorder vs. Dysthymia; Substance Abuse vs.

Substance Dependence) that could contribute to homework compliance. These variables were not included in the current studys moderator analysis as they were not examined in the results of the studies reviewed. Research has found that clients comply less with homework directives if they have greater and/or more long-lasting symptomology (Worthington 1986 ). Of Female Gangs. In addition to demographic moderators and severity of psychopathology, other things to Essay Vietnam: The Perfect keep in mind when considering the The Phenomena of Female Gangs, relationship between a clients homework compliance and therapeutic gain are pharmacotherapy (e.g., is the Essay The Perfect Place!, client on antidepressant medications?), if the Essay, client is involved in another form of treatment (e.g., social skills training), and use of on The Perfect Vacation coping mechanisms for of Female dealing with stress (e.g., does the client take action in response to stress or become less productive? Addis and Jacobson 2000 ). The results, however, demonstrate a more generalized view of the effects of homework compliance on the Process of Writing in a First-Year Composition Essay, therapy outcome across a span of different psychological diagnoses and diverse demographic characteristics. A further limitation of the current review is that it did not take into account the client-therapist relationship. Gangs Essay. Research has found that a positive and trusting client-therapist relationship may aid recovery in rhetorical, mental illness (Green et al.

2008 ) regardless of homework. Additionally, the strength of the relationship between the client and the therapist could contribute to homework compliance, with a stronger working relationship leading to increased homework compliance. Without looking at the client-therapist relationship as a moderator between homework compliance and treatment outcome, there is a possibility that the The Phenomena of Female Essay, relationship alone contributed to terms and techniques of persuasion the improvements seen in the clients. However, as mentioned by Kazantzis et al. ( 2000 ), there exists an abundance of The Phenomena Essay research that demonstrates the Vacation Place!, positive effects of the use of of Female Essay homework in therapy on treatment outcome. Finally, the Life and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay, current review did not examine the Gangs Essay, clients attitude towards homework.

A negative attitude towards homework, even if the homework is completed, could potentially limit the likelihood that the client will continue to Essay Vietnam: The Perfect Place! practice the skills learned once therapy is Gangs, completed. Motivation, lack of effort, and readiness to zelda fitzgerald die change are other variables that were not explored in the current study, which are factors that have been found to of Female be correlated with homework compliance (Neimeyer et al. 2008 ; Yovel and zelda fitzgerald Safren 2007 ). Addis and Jacobson ( 2000 ) examined the relationship between clients acceptance of the treatment rationale and the degree to which clients completed homework, and concluded that the Gangs, ability to provide a convincing treatment rationale may be one of the crucial skills which determines the success of CBT in real-world clinical settings. Further studies would benefit from exploring these areas in regard to homework compliance. In sum, the results of this meta-analysis suggest that on the whole, greater compliance with homework is Place!, related to improved treatment outcome, and this relationship is robust across a variety of treatment targets (e.g., depression, anxiety, and substance use). However, this study also highlights discrepancies in effect sizes surrounding the method of of Female Essay assessing homework compliance (e.g., objective vs. subjective). Specifically, higher effect sizes were found when therapists and clients both evaluate homework compliance.

On one hand, clinicians may desire making homework compliance a collaborative part of range theories treatment (e.g., to structure therapy whereby review of homework is an integral part of sessions). The Phenomena Of Female Essay. On the other hand, these discrepancies may highlight the Impacts Unions on the South Economy, inherent limitations in using subjective assessments of homework compliance. To this regard, it may be increasingly important for more standardized and objective methods of assessing homework compliance that are less prone to bias and that capture the The Phenomena, true nature of the relationship between homework compliance and treatment outcome. In this vein, suggestions on incorporating homework into therapy and improving compliance are available in the literature (Beck 1995 ; Tompkins 2004 ), as are forms for measuring multiple aspects of homework compliance (Kazantzis et al. Impacts Unions South Essay. 2004 ). Funding for this manuscript was provided by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) through grant R01 AG031090 and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) through grant R01 MH 084967. This article is The Phenomena of Female, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Brent T. Mausbach 1 Email author Raeanne Moore 1 2 Scott Roesch 3 Veronica Cardenas 1 Thomas L. Application Nursing. Patterson 1 1. Department of Psychiatry (0680) University of California San Diego La Jolla USA 2. California School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International University San Diego CA USA 3. Department of Psychology San Diego State University San Diego CA USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.

.BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at The Phenomena of Female Essay, your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.

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A Guide to Writing A Pastoral Resume. A pastoral resume can be difficult to write and develop. Churches often receive dozens of The Phenomena resumes in their pastoral search process, and the Process of Writing in a Essay, finding the right candidate is The Phenomena Essay a rigorous process. There are several important steps to follow as you prepare for writing a pastoral resume. First, you must remember that a ministry resume is a very different document than a secular resume. Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and Learning First-Year Composition Course, family status, date of birth, personal philosophies, and even a family picture.

You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and The Phenomena of Female Gangs, developed different from a traditional resume. Because of this structure and the details involved in writing a pastoral resume, it is often longer than a traditional resume. On the Impacts of Trade African Essay, first page you should include the most pertinent and core information the top of the first page should clearly state your name, and if you have an advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name. Many ministry and pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at of Female the top right of the of Dorothea, page. Pauls first letter to of Female Gangs Essay, Timothy includes the pastors family in the description of the pastors qualifications, and of middle range nursing theories to practice, as our culture includes the Gangs Essay, pastors wife as a representation of the ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture. Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Below your name you should indicate you contact information and biographical information. A significant difference between a secular resume and a ministry resume is the inclusion of personal details.

Some of Life these details include marital status, family details, date of birth, and even how long you have been married. Especially from a secular point of view, and living in a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and leadership in his marriage and parenting. Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of Gangs Essay ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of your ministry accomplishments. This should be succinct and set you apart as the of Trade on the South Economy Essay, candidate for the position. The second section in writing a pastoral resume is your educational information. The Phenomena Essay. You should clearly indicate both your degree and the institution you received your degree at. Especially in how did ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the quality of your theological training. Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and teaching within the church you are hired at. Essay. You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is die typically your highest degree. Gangs. The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience.

In the case of someone beginning in ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and academic internships. For pastors or ministers without significant of lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the most recent employment first. Human Resource professionals tend to recommend that in describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the Essay Vietnam: Place!, focus on The Phenomena accomplishments and activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . This informs the reader not only of what your responsibilities are, but also of the results of your ministries. Although you want to balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is where you showcase your skills and talents. The fourth section of your pastoral resume is where all semblance of a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is the Process First-Year often attached separately, or included on The Phenomena Gangs a separate page. Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into Impacts of Trade Unions South several sections, such as: Conversion and Call to Ministry. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs. Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching.

Philosophy of Leadership. Philosophy of Counseling. Each of how did fitzgerald die your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and of Female, if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. These are all important sections, are churches want to know, and Impacts Unions South African Economy, frankly have a right to know, how you will teach, lead, and counsel. Be sure to personalize these statements. Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the of Female Gangs, denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of rhetorical terms your doctrinal positions: churches want to Gangs Essay, know what you personally believe and will teach in their church. Do not make the mistake of trusting anothers references.

Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and agree with in their application. There are a few more details that are important not to overlook when writing a pastoral resume. Often times, search committees and churches may dismiss a resume due to a lack of details or information. Rhetorical Of Persuasion. You resume should reflect not only your professional and ministry accomplishments, but also your personality. If you print off your resume to of Female Gangs Essay, send it to a church, staple your resume or paperclip the document.

This is an easy step to ensure that the pages are not separated. Life Of Dorothea. An important tip to consider is to insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in the footer of your resume, in case the pages of your resume are separated. Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in your resume. Of Female. Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and not obtrusive. Terms. Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for resumes. A contemporary trend is to make references available upon request. These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on your resume and separates them somewhat from the rest of of Female Essay your resume. Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references. If at how did zelda fitzgerald die all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends.

Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an The Phenomena Gangs Essay excellent opportunity to Life and Work of Dorothea, explain some of Essay your qualifications, skills, talents, and experience, in a less formal manner than in your resume. Your cover letter should be written well and Learning of Writing First-Year Composition Course, signed personally. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Pastoral Resume | Reproduction of content on this website, in part or in whole, is strictly prohibited | Log in.

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essay on Gangs, pentateuch The bibliography for Learning the Process in a Composition Essay the Introduction to the Pentateuch, as well as for Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers , and Gangs Essay, Deuteronomy is presented at the end of this article. The Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible. The first five books of the Bible (both Hebrew and Christian) are foundational to all of the Process of Writing First-Year Course Essay, Scripture and rank as one of the most important portions of the The Phenomena Gangs, Word of God (Wolf 1991:17). This is so because its theological and historical revelations are necessary for an understanding of the rest of the Old Testament and rhetorical terms and techniques, the New Testament as well. These five books contain, for example, God's revelation about the origin of the world with its emphasis on the creation of man made in the image of God, how sin entered human history and the judgment that followed, and The Phenomena of Female, the origin of the nation of Israel and its covenantrelationship to Yahweh. For the Jew, these five books contained an authority that the rest of Vacation Place!, (their) Scripturethe prophets and the writingsdid not seem to match. This is evident in Gangs Essay that when the Jews were driven into exile, it was the and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay, books of Moses that were read most frequently in the synagogues. The first five books of the Bible have from the earliest of time been taken by the Jews to constitute a unity known to them as the Torah or Law . To the Jews, the word Torah best described this part of Scripture as this biblical Hebrew term means not only the law but also teaching or instruction which more completely characterizes Gods communication to the Israelites through Moses (Wolf:1991:18). The first five books of the Gangs, Bible have commonly come to Essay on The Perfect, be referred to as the Pentateuch, a word derived from the Greek penta , meaning, five, and teuchos , originally meaning a case for carrying papyrus rolls but in later usage, meaning the scroll itself.

The division of these writings into five separate books may owe its origin to a practical consideration as one scroll containing all the The Phenomena Gangs, words would be unwieldy, whereas five scrolls could be handled quite easily (Wolf 1991:17-18). Before developing a synthesis of the individual books of the Pentateuch, it is Learning the Process First-Year Composition helpful to consider issues pertaining to its authorship, author, chronology of events and dating of composition, theological emphases, and covenant forms which dominate the Essay, compositional structure of the text from Exodus through Deuteronomy. Much has been written on an introduction to application range nursing to practice, the Pentateuch, and the topics considered here are discussed in detail in other works, some of which are cited in the text and referenced in the bibliography. The intent here is to The Phenomena of Female, deal with these issues only to the extent necessary to carry out the goal of zelda, this work which is to The Phenomena Gangs Essay, develop a synthesis of each book of the Pentateuch. Some of these topics have a direct bearing on developing such a synthesis, while others provide a framework within which to better understand the Pentateuch.

Wolf (1991:51) has noted that few subjects in Old Testament studies have generated more discussion and zelda, more disagreement than the question of who wrote the Pentateuch. Opinions range widely with some arguing that every word was written by Moses, while others insist that Moses had nothing whatever to do with the writing of the Pentateuch. Instead it is claimed that certain ancient sources, labeled J, E, P, and D, were the original documents from which the Pentateuch was formed, and that the writers of these alleged documents, the so-called Yahwist, Elohist, Priestly Code writer, and the Deuteronomist, are regarded as the true authors of the Pentateuch. (See, Archer 1985:83-108, and The Phenomena, Wolf 1991:62-70, for a detailed discussion of the documentary hypothesis of the Pentateuch.) While the Learning the Process in a Course Essay, issue of authorship is Gangs Essay minimally important in of Dorothea the process of Essay, understanding the Pentateuch, the issue of the texts unity of composition is important in order to develop a synthesis of the text. It is on The Perfect Vacation Place! important, therefore for this study to establish authorship of the Pentateuch. Conservative biblical scholarship, while acknowledging problems associated with Mosaic authorship, generally adheres to the traditional Jewish and Christian position, while liberal biblical scholarship tends to reject Mosaic authorship in support of the documentary hypothesis. This development of a synthesis of the Pentateuch is in agreement with the The Phenomena of Female Gangs, traditional Jewish and Christian position and assumes Mosaic authorship and, therefore, a unity of composition of the text. Essay The Perfect Place!? To argue in favor of Mosaic authorship would be extensive and not the purpose of The Phenomena of Female Essay, this study. Nevertheless it is on helpful to present in brief a case for Mosaic authorship. The Pentateuch is, in a sense, an anonymous work since it does not explicitly state who wrote it. The question of authorship for the Pentateuch is complex.

For example, in considering the authorship of Genesis it is evident that it deals with a vast period of time, none of which took place in Moses' lifetime. A reading of the Old Testament, however, gives the impression that the Pentateuch was written by Moses. Add to this the testimony of the New Testament, and considerations of the Pentateuch's unity of composition, a case can be made for Mosaic authorship of the first five books of the Old Testament. More specifically, a case for Mosaic authorship can be argued on the basis of, 1. The Phenomena Gangs Essay? statements concerning the writing activity of Moses as found in the Pentateuch itself, as found in the rest of the OT, and as found in how did die the NT; 2. the theological and compositional unity of the complex text of the Pentateuch which tends to support the position of a single author/unity of authorship; 3. the implication that Moses' training in the educational system of Pharaoh in Egypt would have prepared him for this great literary task; and. 4. the fact that the involvement of Moses as the principle human protagonist in the record of Israels deliverance, desert experiences, and its birth as a nation in covenantrelationship with Yahweh, makes him the logical choice for not only the recording of those events, but, more importantly, as the author of the theological message forged from those events.

Points 3 and 4 require no supportive argument; they are reasonable logical assumptions. In what follows, consideration is given to explicit statements in the whole of Scripture which support Mosaic authorship, and, to reasons for assuming unity, both literarily and theologically, for the Pentateuch. Explicit biblical statements in support of Mosaic authorship. Statements found in the Pentateuch. Wolf (1991:53) has observed that a number of passages in the Pentateuch assert that Moses wrote at least part of of Female Gangs Essay, it. In Exodus 17:14, for example, the Lord told Moses to write an account of the battle with the Amalekites. Then also, as recorded in Exodus 24:4, Moses, at Mount Sinai, wrote down all the words and laws spoken by the Lord and rhetorical terms and techniques, repeated to the people.

Numbers 33:1-2 says that at the Lords command, Moses recorded the stages of the Israelites journey from the time they came out of The Phenomena Gangs, Egypt. In Deuteronomy 31:9 the text says that Moses wrote this law and gave it to the priests and commanded them to and techniques of persuasion, read this law in front of of Female Essay, all Israel in application of middle their hearing at the end of every seven years when all Israel comes to appear before the Lord. The literal understanding of this text requires that a written copy of the Law must have been in existence. The most comprehensive statement of Mosaic authorship in the Pentateuch is found in Deuteronomy 31:24, where it states that after Moses finished writing in a book the words of this law from beginning to end he commanded the Levites to Take this Book of the Law and place it beside the of Female Gangs Essay, ark of the covenant of the Lord. Statements found in the rest of the Old Testament. The Pentateuch is not the only portion of the Old Testament which associates these five books with Moses (Wolf 1991:54). For example, after Moses' death, God instructed Joshua to obey all the law given by Moses and to Impacts Unions South, meditate upon the Book of the Law day and night (Josh 1:7-8). Again, at the covenant renewal ceremony at Mount Ebal Joshua built an altar of uncut stones following instructions written in the Book of the Law of Gangs, Moses (Josh 8:31).

The specifications for die this altar are given in Exodus 20:25. Additionally, Joshua 8:34-35 emphasizes that all the words of the The Phenomena of Female, law were read to the people. Furthermore, in zelda his farewell address to The Phenomena, the nation, Joshua urges the people to be faithful to of Writing First-Year Essay, God by obeying all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Josh 23:6). Joshua was not the only one to of Female Gangs Essay, make this association, for it is recorded in rhetorical and techniques 1 Kings 2:3 that just before he died David challenged Solomon to keep the decrees and commandments written in the Law of The Phenomena Essay, Moses. Also, 2 Kings 14:5-6 says of Amaziah that when he became king he killed his servants who had slain the king his father, but he did not put to death the sons of the slayers according to what is written in the Book of the Law of of middle nursing theories, Moses. And 2 Kings 18:6; 23:2 says that Josiah served the Lord with all his heart and soul in Gangs Essay accordance with all the terms of persuasion, law of Moses. Biblical scholars, at least conservative scholars, are agreed that by the time of Ezra and Nehemiah in the fifth century B.C. the Pentateuch was attributed to Moses (Wolf:1991:54).

This is supported by the phrase the Book of Moses which appears in Ezra 6:18 and Nehemiah 13:1 as well as in 2 Chronicles 25:4. Statements found in the New Testament. The authorship connection between Moses and the Pentateuch is of Female Gangs Essay even more direct in the New Testament (Wolf 1991:55) where there are numerous references to the Law of Moses or the Book of Moses (Mark 12:26), or just simply to Moses as in, Moses and Life and Work, the prophets (Luke 16:29, 31; 24:27; Acts 26:22). While the The Phenomena Gangs Essay, gospels contain many references to Moses and his writings, the most important ones are found in the gospel of John. In John 1:17 the gospel writer states that the law was given through Moses. And in 1:45 he reports that Philip told Nathaniel he had found the one Moses wrote about in terms and techniques of persuasion the Law. In John 5:46-47, Jesus Himself declares that Moses wrote about The Phenomena of Female Essay, Him, but the Jews did not believe that He was the Christ because they did not believe what Moses wrote.

As His dispute with the Jews heated up, Jesus noted that Moses had indeed given them the Law but none of them kept it (John 7:19). In the ensuing dispute with the Jews, Jesus attributes the of Dorothea Dix Essay, giving of circumcision to Moses. Of Female Gangs Essay? But John notes here that it actually did not come from Moses but from the Patriarchs. Johns clarification of this point supports the Impacts of Trade Unions on the South, claim for Mosaic authorship. The institution of circumcision came through Abraham (Gen 17) as the sign of the covenant God made with him, yet it comes down to the Jews through the Law of Moses (John 7:22-23). Significantly, the reference to Moses' giving the Jews circumcision implicitly attributes the authorship of Genesis to Moses. Genesis is the most difficult of the five books to link to Moses, thus if some connection can be made between Moses and the Book of The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, Genesis a case can be made for Mosaic authorship of the entire Pentateuch. The Pauline epistles use Moses in a similar manner as, for example, in fitzgerald die Romans 10:5 where Paul says that Moses describes . . . the The Phenomena of Female Essay, righteousness that is by the law, and then goes on to quote Leviticus 18:5. In 2 Corinthians 3:15 Paul refers to the veil that covers the rhetorical, hearts of the Jews when Moses is read. It would seem, that in The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay these contexts Moses denotes the Books of and techniques of persuasion, Moses, and thus the Pentateuch.

Nowhere in the New Testament is there any hint that some individual authored the Pentateuch other than Moses. Unity of composition in support of of Female Essay, unity of authorship. Demonstrating the literary unity of the Pentateuch does not prove Mosaic authorship. However if such unity can be shown for major portions of the Pentateuch an argument can be made for unity of authorship which can be used to support a claim for range theories Mosaic authorship. Unity of composition for the Pentateuch is not argued for in detail here but only broadly from the perspective of continuity in the overall story, narrative structure, and grammatical features. Continuity/unity of narrative story. The five books of the Pentateuch present a coherent picture of the origins of The Phenomena of Female, mankind, its fall into a state of sin, and the result of that fall. It also presents a coherent picture of the birth and development of Israel as a nation in covenantrelationship with Yahweh (Wolf 1991:18-19). Furthermore, except for Genesis, these books focus on the life and ministry of Moses whom God raised up to Dix Essay, lead the sons of Israel out of bondage in Egypt and into that covenant-relationship with Himself, and to, but not into, the Land of Promise as a fulfillment of His promise to Abraham. The continuing role of Moses as the protagonist in The Phenomena of Female Gangs Exodus through Deuteronomy, and the central focus of Yahweh's developing covenantrelationship with Israel, in accordance with the promises He made to Abraham, serve to unify the books of the Pentateuch. Continuity/unity in narrative structure.

The main narrative sections of the Pentateuch are concluded by poetic material sometimes followed by an epilogue (see, for example, Sailhamer 1990:7-8). For example, at the close of the patriarchal narratives stands the blessings of Jacob which are written in Vietnam: Place! poetic form in Genesis 49 and an epilogue in chapter 50. Of Female Essay? The Exodus narratives are concluded by the song of Moses (Exodus 15) written in poetic form, and the wilderness wanderings are followed by Balaam's oracles (Num 23-24) written in poetic form. And at the end of the Pentateuch there is a double poetic section containing Moses' song of witness and rhetorical and techniques of persuasion, blessing on the twelve tribes (Deut 32-33), followed by an epilogue (Deut 34). Continuity/unity in grammatical features. Along with the overall continuity in the narrative, there are also certain grammatical features that underscore the unity of the Pentateuch.

For some reason, as Wolf (1991:19) points out, these books fail to distinguish between the third person pronouns he and she. Instead of making this distinction like the rest of the OT, the Pentateuch uses only the The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, masculine form. Conclusion on Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. While it is possible to application nursing to practice, conclude as some have that the witness of the Pentateuch itself to Mosaic authorship can be understood as confirming only that certain portions of the text were written by Moses, there is nevertheless other credible biblical evidence to support his writing of the text. And while it would seem that certain portions of the Pentateuch were additions from later periods of Israel's history (see, Wolf 1991:58-60), it does not invalidate that Moses could have written the The Phenomena Essay, majority of the text.

For example, the declaration of the humility of Moses (Num 12:3) would hardly be convincing if it came from Life of Dorothea Moses' own judgment. Equally difficult to determine in the Book of Numbers is the origin of the Balaam story (Num 22-24). Since Moses was not a participant in The Phenomena these events, or even an observer of the Process in a First-Year Composition Course Essay, them, their origin as Scripture is of Female Gangs Essay somewhat problematic. These and other examples suggest later additions to the text of the writings. Nevertheless, there is reasonable evidence to support Mosaic authorship, and it is reasonable, therefore, to the Process First-Year Composition Essay, conclude along with both Jewish and The Phenomena Essay, Christian tradition, that authorship of the majority and essential content of the Pentateuch is to be ascribed to Moses. From a Jewish perspective, the dominant figure of the Pentateuch and, to a certain extent, of the of persuasion, entire OT is Moses. Of Female Gangs? Abraham plays a key role in application of middle range theories to practice Genesis, but his stature and accomplishments do not match those of Moses.

Although Abraham was the founding father of Israel, Moses was the one who organized the nation, promulgated their laws, and, under God, led them for forty years through the wilderness. Throughout this time he was a prophet, a priest, and, in effect, a king/ruler as he directed every facet of Israel's national life. The NT highly praises both Abraham and Moses, but it was Moses who appeared on the Mount of Transfiguration, along with Elijah, to talk with Jesus (Matt 17:3-8). Though he was born into a Jewish household as a member of the tribe of Levi, he was raised an Egyptian by Pharaoh's daughter and given an education befitting a prince of the royal household. Moses' concern for his people in later life led directly to his self-imposed exile from Egypt. His calling by Gangs Essay, God after forty years in the desert of Midian set him aside as a prophet, one who would speak the Essay Vietnam: Place!, word of God to the sons of of Female Gangs Essay, Israel and to Pharaoh. In his role as a prophet, Moses was unique.

When Aaron and Miriam claimed that God spoke through them as well as through Moses, God replied that he spoke with Moses face to face, not through dreams and visions (Num 12:6-8). South African? The uniqueness of Moses' role as a prophet of God is demonstrated in his prediction that God will raise up for you a prophet like me (Deut 18:15, 18). After many centuries of prophets coming and Essay, going, Israel was, at Life, the time of Christ's appearance, yet looking for the prophet of whom Moses spoke (John 1:21). According to Acts 3:21-23 this was fulfilled in Christ. Closely associated with Moses' prophetic role were the The Phenomena Gangs Essay, miraculous signs and wonders that Yahweh performed through him, first in Egypt, and then in the wilderness (Deut 34:10-11). A prophet was also a man of prayer interceding on behalf of others (see for of middle theories example, Gen 20:7). Moses' intercession on behalf of Israel (Exod 32:11-14) clearly demonstrates his function as a mediator between God and Israel. The year that Israel spent at Gangs Essay, Mount Sinai was a significant time for Moses, for it was then that he served as lawgiver and became mediator of the covenant Yahweh entered into with the sons of Israel. The people were afraid to listen to the powerful voice of on The Perfect Vacation, God, so God spoke to Moses and Moses gave them the laws and The Phenomena Gangs, statutes (Exod 20:18-19). Moses wrote down everything Yahweh had said and read to the people from the Book of the Covenant (Exod 24:4, 7). Moses' role as lawgiver is clearly connected with the writing of the Pentateuch since all five books are referred to as the Law.

At Mount Sinai Moses also directed the establishment of national worship under the leadership of the of persuasion, priests and Levites. Moses officiated at the ordination of the priests, offering the Essay, prescribed sacrifices and applying the blood required by the Levitical law (Lev 8). Thus, before Aaron was installed as high priest, Moses was Israel's priest. It is evident from of middle nursing theories this that in order for Moses to officiate at the inauguration of the Aaronic priesthood he necessarily must have been sanctified. Since there is no record of The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, this happening, it is clear that God Himself must have sanctified Moses, likely at the burning bush incident when he was told by God to take off his sandals because he was on holy ground (Exodus 3:1-6; compare this with Isa 6:1-7).

And it was Moses who received from Yahweh the plans for the construction of the Tabernacle and the regulations for Vietnam: the various offerings (Exod 25:9; Lev 7:37-38). Significantly, Moses remained the spiritual leader of Israel even after the priests and Gangs Essay, Levites were carrying out their responsibilities. Dating and of middle nursing, chronology of the Pentateuch. The importance of chronology in establishing a history of a nation has been underscored by The Phenomena of Female, Thiele (1983:33): CHRONOLOGY IS THE BACKBONE of history. Absolute chronology is the fixed central core around which the zelda fitzgerald, events of the nation must be correctly grouped before they may assume their exact position in history and before their mutual relationships may be properly understood. Gangs? Without exact chronology there can be no exact history.

Until a correct chronology of a nation has been established, the events of that nation cannot be correctly integrated with the events of neighboring states. If history is to be a true and exact science, then it is of fundamental importance to construct a sound chronological framework about which may be fitted the events of terms and techniques, states and the international world. The importance in establishing a chronological framework in order to understand the history of the Old Testament including the Pentateuch is clear. Establishing a chronological framework of the Old Testament in general, and of the Pentateuch in particular, is problematic, however, because biblical data, the primary source for establishing a chronology, is generally with respect to some person, such as a king (see for example Jeremiah 1:2-3 and Daniel 1:1), or event, such as an earthquake (see for of Female Gangs example Amos 1:1) and results, therefore, in a relative rather than absolute dating of events and persons. It is beyond the intent of this brief section to discuss what is meant by an absolute chronological framework. Suffice it to say that such a framework can be established for how did zelda die examining the history of The Phenomena of Female, a nation in of Dorothea Dix Essay relationship to other nations based on historical records of that nation. In order to establish an absolute chronology some chronological reference point needs to be established or identified. The Western world choose the birth of The Phenomena of Female Gangs, Christ as that reference point. Given that point (see Hoehner 1977:11-27 for a detailed determination of the date of the birth of Christ), a chronology can be derived backwards and forwards in time. This does not solve all the problems associated with establishing a robust chronological framework, one that will allow for the study of all nations.

It is critical that there be points of intersection between nations, societies, cultures (see Daniel 1:1 as an instance of intersection between Israel and of middle range theories to practice, Babylonia). In establishing a chronological framework for the Old Testament including the Pentateuch, often times more data than the biblical record is needed. The primary sources for developing an Old Testament chronology include, but are not necessarily limited to, biblical data, archaeological data, and astronomical data. The primary source for of Female Essay knowledge of biblical events is, as Archer (1979:359) declares, the Bible itself. The frequent references to individual life spans and to regnal years of of persuasion, kings, as well as such chronological data as the interval between the Exodus and the building of the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 6:1), and the length of the Egyptian sojourn (Exod 12:40, 41), serve to establish major chronological data points of OT Hebrew history. Chart 1 summarizes biblical chronological data important for The Phenomena Gangs establishing a chronology of the Pentateuch. Application Range Nursing Theories? It is important to observe from this summary that much of this data provides chronological reference for the events relative to the Exodus. Thus establishing an absolute date for The Phenomena of Female Gangs the Exodus is important for establishing a chronology of the Pentateuch. This is done in a subsequent section.

Chart 1 Summary of Biblical Chronological Data. Israel to be enslaved and oppressed 400 years in a foreign country; The Exodus from Egypt takes place on the 15 th day, of the 1 st month, of the 1 st year (Note: from this point on, time in the Pentateuch; is referenced with respect to the date of the Exodus) Israel lived in Egypt 430 years to the day; (Note: this is of Dorothea referenced back in time from the Exodus) Israel arrived at Mount Sinai on the 15 th day, of the 3 rd month, of the The Phenomena of Female, 1 st year after the Exodus; Erection of the application nursing theories to practice, Tabernacle on the 1 st day of the 1 st month (of the 2 nd year) after the Exodus; Taking of the first census commanded at Sinai on the 1st day, of the 2 nd month, of the 2 nd year from the Exodus; Israel's departure from Sinai occurred on the 20 th day, of the 2 nd month, of the 2 nd year after the Exodus; Israel arrives at Kadesh Barnea in the 1 st month (of the 40 th year?) Israel set out from Kadesh and Essay, came to Mount Hor; Israel traveled to the plains of Moab and camped along the Jordan across from application range nursing Jericho (in the of Female Gangs, 40 th year);

Israel set out from Rameses on the 15 th day of the 1 st month (of the 1 st year) the day after the Passover (see also, Exod 12:2); Numbers 33:38, 22:24. Aaron died on of Writing in a First-Year Composition, Mount Hor on the 1 st day, 5 th month, of the 40 th year after the Exodus; It takes 11 days to go from Horeb (Mount Sinai) to Kadesh Barnea; Moses spoke to Israel on of Female, the East bank of the Jordan (the plains of Moab) on the 1 st day of the 11 th month of the 40 th year after the Exodus; Israel spent 40 years in the wilderness; Israel wandered in zelda the wilderness for 38 years from the time they left Kadesh Barnea until the Exodus generation died off and Israel arrived at the plains of Moab; Moses died on the Plains of Moab when he was 120 years old (therefore Exodus 2:1 to Deuteronomy 34:7 spans 120 years); Israel entered the Land on the 10th day, of the Gangs Essay, 1st month, (of the 41st year) after the Exodus;

Israel moved about in the desert forty years from the time they had left Egypt until the time they entered the land of rhetorical and techniques, Canaan; Caleb was 40 years old when he spied out the land of Canaan (Num 13:1-16); Caleb was 85 years old at Gangs, the time of the division of the Life and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay, Land (45 years from the time Moses spoke to him about his inheritance); Joshua was 110 years old when he died; Israel had lived in The Phenomena Gangs the Land 300 years when Jephthah was judging;

Construction of Solomon's Temple began exactly 480 years after Israel came out of Egypt, in the 4 th year of rhetorical terms, Solomons reign, the 2 nd month; The Temple was completed in the 8 th month of the 11 th year of Solomons reign; The Law came 430 years after the giving of the promise to Abraham; Archaeological artifacts are important in of Female Gangs Essay establishing a chronological framework for the Pentateuch and the rest of the Old Testament because they can be used to determine the rhetorical and techniques, time period of successive layers of ancient Near Eastern archaeological sites. The Phenomena Gangs Essay? For the most part, these time periods provide only relative dating and show which occupational levels were contemporaneous with comparable strata in other sites (Archer 1979:359-360). Livingston(1974:4-9) has noted that Palestinian archaeologists have discovered that the most reliable means to establish relative dating sequences is to carefully observe and record layers of soil through which they dig. For in these layers they have discovered that particular types of pottery are repeatedly found in particular layers that have the same sequence. Study of this archaeological condition has revealed that both soil layer and its matching type of pottery were tied with a specific people and their culture. Pottery chronology has, Livingston observes, been refined to the extent that archaeologists can, for the most part come within about fifty years of dating the beginning and Learning the Process Composition Essay, end of Gangs Essay, any occupation site.

Other artifacts found by archaeologists that aid in identifying people and dating events include such things as buildings, home utensils, implements used for farming, hunting, and manufacturing, weapons of war, art objects, tombs, bones, weights, coins, and, most importantly, inscriptions. Helpful for deriving absolute dating during the era of range nursing, Israels kings was Assyria's practice of The Phenomena Gangs Essay, dating years by the name of an Life, official known as the The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, limmu, who normally held office for only one year. Incomplete limmu lists, recovered from archaeological artifacts, go back prior to Essay Vietnam: Place!, 1200 B.C. A complete collection, however, has been assembled from records dating from 911 to 649 B.C., a time of importance in Israels history as it spans the reigns of most of the nations kings (Archer 1979:360). Thiele (1983) has dealt at length with the issue of dating the The Phenomena of Female Gangs, Hebrew kings in detail and has established a complete list. As Livingston (1974:2) points out the terms and techniques of persuasion, king lists permit a largely relative chronology within Egyptian history, providing us with the knowledge that a certain king and the events of his reign preceded or followed some other king. What is not known from this information, however, is when these things occurred with respect to an absolute reference point, which for the West is the birth of Christ. Help in such cases can come from astronomical data. Livingston (1974:1-2) provides a good example of the importance of astronomical data in helping to establish an absolute chronological framework from a stream of historical data that provides only a relative chronology.

Writing on the Egyptian dynasties as reference points, he notes that the Sothic cycle makes it possible to assign an The Phenomena Gangs Essay, absolute date to the major dynasties and to many individual kings in zelda fitzgerald die Egyptian history. Of Female Essay? From the king lists a fairly complete relative chronology may be determined. However, it is not known from this data when these things occurred with respect to the absolute reference which the Vietnam: Vacation Place!, West has accepted, namely, the birth of Christ. Gangs? However, given the of Writing in a Course Essay, event which marked the beginning of the solar year for The Phenomena of Female Gangs the Egyptians, namely, the rising of the Dog Star, Sothis, it is possible to correlate the relative chronology of the application to practice, Egyptian king lists with the Gangs, absolute chronological framework accepted in the West. Livingston records that on good evidence the rising of Sothis occurred in A.D. 139, and the previous occurrence would have been in 1317 B.C. and the one prior to that in 2773 B.C. Application Nursing Theories? With this information, it has been possible to take the three instances of when Sothis is reported to have risen on a certain calendrical day in a certain royal year and, ascertaining where the The Phenomena Gangs Essay, calendar was in its cycle, assign and absolute date to the royal year. The earliest of these, he says, is 1872 B.C. Having determined this chronological framework, it is possible, Livingston argues, to establish a fixed checkpoint for another culture whenever that culture intersects with that of Egypt. Then given that point of intersection in the established chronological framework that cultures chronological information can be assessed and arranged.

Also referencing the and Work Dix Essay, Sothic cycle, Archer (1979:360) observes that it is possible to establish that the ninth year of The Phenomena of Female Gangs, Amenhotep I was 1545 B.C. In the ninth year of Amenhotep I, a heliacal rise of Sothis was observed on the ninth day of the third month of summer. Modern astronomers have calculated that, if the observation was made from Memphis or Heliopolis, such an observation could only have been made on that day in 1537 BC. If the The Perfect, observation was made in The Phenomena Essay Thebes, however, it could only Vietnam: Vacation Place! have taken place in 1517. The latter choice is usually accepted as correct since Thebes was the Essay, capital of early 18th dynasty Egypt; hence, Amenhotep I is given an accession date in 1526 BC, although the possibility of 1546 BC is not entirely dismissed. This is significant from of Dorothea a biblical perspective because if, as argued for below, the The Phenomena of Female Essay, Exodus took place in 1446 BC (the early date) then it took place in the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1450-1425) who followed Amenhotep I. Chronological framework of the PentateuchGenesis through Deuteronomy.

In establishing a chronology for the Pentateuch two broad time periods are considered; the time period for Genesis, and the time period for Exodus through Deuteronomy. For Genesis, there are two chronological frameworks to fitzgerald, be considered; that which is prior to the Patriarchs, and The Phenomena of Female Gangs, that which is for the Patriarchs. In the case of zelda, Exodus through Deuteronomy, the prominent chronological factor which establishes the of Female, chronological framework is the date of the Exodus. Chronological framework prior to the Patriarchs (Genesis 1-11) In constructing a chronology for the Pentateuch is important to understand that for and techniques of persuasion the time period before the Patriarchs (Gen 1-11), OT data are very limited and concise and there exists the possibility of gaps in the genealogical biblical records recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 (Archer 1979:361-365) as such genealogies were not intended to serve a narrow chronological purpose as is the case in the modern sense. Rather, like those in Matthew 1 or Luke 3, their main purpose was theological (see Kitchen 1966:37-38; and The Phenomena Gangs, Archer 1979:361). One may question, therefore, whether these genealogies are really to be understood as being continuous throughout. There are indications which suggest that this is not the case. One such indication is die found in the phrase A begat B which does not always imply direct parenthood.

This is The Phenomena of Female shown by its use in Matthew 1 in cases where links are known from the OT to have been omitted. Terms like son and father can mean not only '(grand)son' and '(grand)father' but also 'descendant' and 'ancestor' respectively. Life And Work Of Dorothea Dix Essay? Thus, in Genesis 5 and Essay, 11, 'A begat B' may often mean simply that 'A begat the line culminating in B.' In such cases, one cannot use these genealogies to fix the date of the Flood or of the earliest man, Adam (Kitchen 1966:37-38; see also, Archer 1979:361). In addition, there are some problems associated with the biblical data and external evidence as well. Of Trade Unions South African Essay? For example, Kitchen (1966:36) has observed that the time covered by the genealogies from The Phenomena Gangs Essay Adam to Life and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay, Abraham, if taken to be continuous, is not nearly long enough when compared with external data.

If the Gangs Essay, birth of Abraham is taken to be about 2000 B.C., as is generally argued for, then on the basis of the biblical chronological data the Flood would have occurred some 290 years earlier, at about 2300 B.C. However, on the basis of Mesopotamian evidence this date is excluded because it would fall some 300 or 400 years after the period of the Gilgamesh of Uruk for whom (in both Epic and Sumerian King List) the terms and techniques, Flood was already an event of distant past. All of The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, this, however, does not necessarily mean the genealogical data recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 are without any factual basis. On the other hand, given present knowledge, it is not possible to establish any absolute dates (Kitchen 1966:35). It is not even possible to establish a relative chronology from Adam to Terah with reasonable certainty owing to the possibility of Essay on The Perfect Place!, gaps in the genealogical biblical record (Archer 1979:361-365). Chronological framework of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12-50) Biblical scholars are not all agreed on the date of the Patriarchal age (Kitchen 1966:41). There are three independent 'main lines' of approach, Kitchen (1966:42-43) argues, that can be taken to establish a chronological framework for this important period of The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, Israel's history. One approach seeks to determine if any major events in the Patriarchal narratives can be linked with external history. Another approach seeks evidence of of Trade Unions on the Economy Essay, chronological data preserved in the details of the narratives, such as personal names, legal usages, etc., which can be correlated with possible use in the Near Eastern context recorded in other documents. A third approach gives consideration to possible chronological links between the Patriarchal era and later epochs.

Major events and external history. According to Kitchen (1966:43-47), the main event of this kind is the raid of the four Eastern kings of Genesis 14. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs Essay? Archaeological data in the Transjordan suggests a date of Impacts Unions South Economy, ca. 1800 B.C., while the names of the four Eastern kings fit the period ca. 2000-1700 B.C. Additionally, the system of power-alliances (four kings against five) is typical of Mesopotamian politics within the period ca. 2000-1750 B.C. but not before or after this general period when different political patterns prevailed. Chronological data preserved in narrative details. Again according to Kitchen (1966:47-53), the personal names of the Gangs Essay, Patriarchs and their families can be directly compared with identical or similarly formed names in Mesopotamian and on the, Egyptian documents of the 20 th to 18 th centuries B.C. and occasionally later.

Further, seasonal occupation of the Negev region on the southwest border of Palestine is archaeologically attested for the 21 st to 19 th centuries B.C., but not for a 1000 years earlier or for 800 years afterwards. It is known from Genesis 20:1; 24:62, that Abraham and Isaac spent time in this area, and from Genesis 26:12; 37:7 that they were keepers of flocks and herds and occasionally grew crops of grain. This activity would best fit the period of ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Additionally, Patriarchal customs of inheritance find close parallels in the Mesopotamian culture of ca. 1500 B.C., and in the Old Babylonian culture in Ur ca. 19 th to 18 th centuries B.C. And lastly, the price of twenty shekels of silver paid for Joseph in Genesis 37:28 is the price that would have been paid for a slave in of Female Gangs Essay about the 18 th century B.C. Earlier than this, slaves were cheaper, with an average price of ten to fifteen shekels, while later they became steadily more expensive. Kitchen (1966:53-56) has observed that certain passages and Impacts of Trade Unions on the African Essay, genealogies in the Pentateuch link the Patriarchs to the period of the Exodus. One such link is The Phenomena Gangs found in Genesis 15:13, where Abraham was informed that his descendants would dwell in a foreign land where they would be oppressed as slaves for 400 years, and in Exodus 12:40-41, which records that the people of Israel had lived in Egypt for precisely 430 years.

The discrepancy in these time periods can be accounted for, Kitchen suggests, by understanding the 400 years as a round figure in Essay on Vietnam: prospect , while the 430 years should be understood as more precise in retrospect . An additional link between the Patriarchal period and the time of Moses is found in Galatians 3:17 where Paul, in speaking of the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant, mentions that the Law came 430 years after the Gangs Essay, promises were given. Application Nursing Theories To Practice? Several explanations have been set forth concerning the 430 years noted by Paul (see Kitchen 1966:53). Some have suggested that it began with Abraham, in The Phenomena of Female which case the Impacts of Trade on the South Economy, 430 years included Israel's time of about 200 years in Canaan and about 200 years in Egypt. The Septuagint supports this view, but this conflicts with the clear statement in Exodus 12:40, 41 that the Egyptian sojourn was 430 years exactly. Another suggestion is that the The Phenomena Gangs, period began with the confirming of the Abrahamic Covenant with Jacob (Gen 35:9-12). A third and on Vacation Place!, perhaps best view is that the period began with the final confirmation of the Covenant to The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, Jacob just prior to his moving to Egypt (Gen 46:1-4). According to Learning First-Year Composition, this last view, the period of time noted in Galatians 3:17 corresponds to the period of the The Phenomena Essay, sojourn in Egypt and correlates exactly with Exodus 12:40. Another link is found in Genesis 15:16 where Abraham was told that his descendants would return to Canaan in 'the fourth generation' (Hebrew dor ). The simplest explanation is that the four dor correspond to the 400 years, not to how did zelda die, 'generations' in the modern sense. This, Kitchen says, is suggested by clear evidence from Ugaritic and early Assyrian sources which indicate that dor or daru can mean a 'span' or 'cycle of time' of eighty years or more. Yet another link is found in the genealogies . Some scholars, Kitchen says, dismiss the figure of four centuries between the Patriarchs and the Exodus by appealing to Exodus 6:16-20, a 'genealogy of Moses and Aaron, which they interpret as four literal generations lasting in total only a century or more.

But in doing so they overlook the Gangs Essay, following facts: 1. Learning In A First-Year Course? Exodus 6:16-20 is not a full genealogy, but only gives the tribe (Levi), clan (Kohath), and family-group (Amram by Jochebed) to of Female Essay, which Moses and Aaron belonged, and not their actual parents. Evidence for this is found in the fact at Life Dix Essay, the time of the Exodus the The Phenomena Gangs, Amramites were numerous, and so Amram must be considered as having lived much earlier. 2. Then too, the statement that 'Jochebed bore (to Amram) Aaron and Moses in Exodus 6:20 does not prove immediate descent. Evidence here is found in, for example, Genesis 46:16-18 which indicates that the children that Zilpah 'bore' to Jacob include great-grandsons. 3. Lastly, ancient Near Eastern genealogies were often selective and not continuous. The genealogies cannot, therefore, be used to contradict the stated period of 400 years, and, therefore, in cases like this, continuity of genealogies has to be proved, not assumed. Based on all these considerations, Kitchen (1966:56) concludes that the total evidence accords well with a chronological framework for the Patriarchs between the 20 th to 18 th centuries B.C. Chronological framework for Exodus through DeuteronomyThe Date of the application of middle nursing theories to practice, Exodus.

The major event which occurred during the The Phenomena Essay, time period which is recorded in Exodus through Deuteronomy was, as noted above, the Essay, Exodus. The date which this event took place is critical for establishing a chronological framework as all other events after it are keyed to it. It is The Phenomena Gangs important, therefore, to establish this date in an absolute chronological framework (i.e., the range nursing, Western calendrical system) so that correlation can be made with other nations with which Israels history intersected. The date of the Exodus is much debated. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs? Two principal views exist concerning this date: the early date view ( ca. 1446-1440 B.C.) during the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1450-1425), and the late date view ( ca. 1299-1232 B.C.) during the Life, reign of Rameses II. Support for the early date comes from the biblical record and archeological data while support for the late date comes primarily from archaeological data (Hannah 1985 104-105). Of Female? Much has been written on this issue. What follows is a very brief argument in favor of the early date. Arguments for Dix Essay the early (15 th century) date.

The traditional date of ca. Essay? 1446 B.C. is based on 1 Kings 6:1, which specifies very definitively that the fourth year of Solomon's reign was the four hundred and eightieth year after the Exodus (see Hannah 1985:104). It is has been established that the fourth year of Solomon's reign was ca. 966 B.C. (see Thiele 1983:67-78 for the establishment of an how did zelda fitzgerald, absolute date in Hebrew chronology). This would establish the Gangs Essay, date of the Exodus at and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay, 1446 B.C. These figures seem to be corroborated by evidence found in The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay Judges 11:26 where it is recorded that Jephthah said that Israel had possessed the land of Canaan for 300 years. The time of of Writing, Jephthahs statement has been established at approximately 1106 B.C (see, for example, Merrill 1987:148-149).

If the The Phenomena of Female Essay, 300 years spoken of in Judges 11:26 refers back to the time when the Conquest proper began, then adding 40 years from the Exodus to the beginning of the rhetorical, Conquest, a date of 1446 B.C is obtained for Essay the Exodus. On the other hand, if the range nursing to practice, 300 years spoken of in Judges 11:26 refers back to the time when the Conquest proper ended, then adding another six or seven years for the conquest of the land results in a date of 1452 or 1453 B.C. for the Exodus. While this evidence is approximate, it clearly supports the early date as opposed to the late date (see, Kaiser 1990:290). Second, as Hannah (1985:104) points out, archeological evidence from Egypt during this period corresponds with the biblical account of the Exodus (see Unger 1954:140-145; and Archer 1964: 215-216), particularly with respect to Amenhotep II. Third, events in the region of Essay, Canaan about 1400 B.C. correspond with the Conquest under Joshua (Hannah 1985:104). How Did Fitzgerald Die? In particular, archaeological evidence found at Jericho, Ai, and Hazor suggest that they were destroyed about 1400 B.C. Waltke (1972:47) has noted that all the accredited Palestinian artifactual evidence supports the literary account that the Conquest occurred at the time specifically dated by the biblical text. Arguments for, and counter-arguments against, the late (13 th century) date.

While the argument advanced by proponents of the early date is straightforward and based on biblical evidence, proponents of the late dating of the Exodus, such as Kitchen (1966 57-75), argue the The Phenomena of Female Gangs, following points which are first stated and then argued against (see, for example, Hannah 1985:104-105): The Exodus could not have take place until after 1300 B.C. because while the Israelites were in theories to practice Egypt, they built the city of Rameses (Exod 1:11). If this city were named for the Pharaoh, Rameses II (1299-1232 B.C.), it is argued that the Exodus could not have occurred prior to 1290 B.C. This point is The Phenomena of Female Essay discredited on the basis of historical considerations. While Exodus 1:11 states that Rameses is one of two cities built by the Israelites, Genesis 47:11 also states that Jacob and his sons settled in the land of Rameses. Whereas it is true that Rameses II was a prodigious builder, it is not at all certain that the city mentioned in Exodus 1:11 bore his name at first. It appears from Unions on the Economy Essay Exodus 1 and 2 that Moses had not been born until after Rameses was built, and yet he was 80 years old at of Female Gangs Essay, the time of the Exodus. The same problem exists with the appearance of the name Rameses in Genesis 47:11, hundreds of years before the reign of Life of Dorothea Dix Essay, Rameses II. A likely explanation is that in both cases earlier names were updated by a later editor who used the more recent name. Of Female? Support for this explanation is found with regards to Genesis 14:14 where Abraham pursued the captors of Lot as far as Dan. But the name of the city was Laish until the tribe of Dan captured it and renamed it in the days of the the Process of Writing First-Year Composition Course Essay, Judges (Judg 18:29).

Another argument against The Phenomena Gangs the identification of Rameses as the pharaoh of the Exodus is the length of the reign of the king who preceded him. Rameses predecessor, Set I, reigned for Learning in a Course Essay only twelve years, clearly not long enough to account for the time Moses spent in Midian. On the other hand, Thutmose III, the pharaoh of the Gangs, oppression according to early date view, ruled from the Process Composition Essay about 1495-1450 B.C. This time span allows sufficient time for Moses to have taken refuge in of Female Gangs Essay Midian for 40 years (Acts 7:30) and then have been told at the burning bush that all the men who wanted to kill you are dead (Exod 4:19). The 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 is an approximate figure representing twelve generations. Life And Work Dix Essay? Since twenty-five years more nearly corresponds to The Phenomena of Female Gangs, a generation, the twelve generations (implied by 1 Kings 6:1) would be only about 300 years. Thus the Exodus would have occurred around 1260 B.C. and application of middle range to practice, the Conquest about 1220 B.C.

There is no basis for claiming that the 480 years represents twelve generations. The text of 1 Kings 6:1 is very explicit in reporting the year and The Phenomena of Female Essay, month that construction on the Temple began. To mix an approximate date with explicit chronological dating does not make sense. Archaeological data (accumulated in the late 1930's) suggests that the presence of Impacts of Trade Unions on the, strong opposition to the Israelites from the Edomites (Num 20:20-21) was impossible before 1300 B.C. because the region of the Essay, southern Transjordan was unoccupied from 1900-1300 B.C. More recent archaeological studies, however, has shown no occupational gap there from 1500-1200 B.C. Archaeological data suggests that Hazor did not fall to on the African Economy, the Israelites until 1300 B.C. However, Scripture states that Hazor fell twice; first in the days of Joshua (Josh 11:10-11) and later in the time of Deborah and Barak (Judg 4:2, 23-24). Further, there is evidence in one area of the of Female Essay, excavated city of a destruction around 1400 B.C. Archaeological evidence at the ancient sites of Lachish and Learning the Process First-Year Course Essay, Debir have uncovered a pattern of destruction which indicates that these cities were destroyed by fire in the 13th century B.C.

The Book of Joshua, however, does not say that Lachish (Josh 10:32) and Debir (Josh 10:38-39) were destroyed, let alone by fire. The only The Phenomena Gangs Essay cities that the Book of Joshua indicates were destroyed by fire are Jericho (Josh 6:25) and Ai (Josh 8:28) during the southern campaign, and and Work Dix Essay, Hazor (Josh 11:13) during the northern campaign. It is possible that Lachish and Debir were destroyed by fire either by Pharaoh Merneptah who invaded Israel ca. 1230 B.C., or by the Sea Peoples who invaded the land about 1200 B.C. There appears to be no valid reason for rejecting the Gangs, biblical data.

Consequently, the date of the terms of persuasion, Exodus is taken as 1446 B.C. on the basis of 1 Kings 6:1, with supporting evidence in Judges 11:26, and on the date of 966 B.C. as the fourth year of The Phenomena, Solomon's reign. Summary on application of middle nursing theories, a chronological framework for the Pentateuch. Based on the date of 1446 B.C. as the The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, date for the Exodus, and how did zelda fitzgerald, using biblical data summarized in Chart 1.1, as well as extra-biblical data about the kings, nations, and people, interacting with Israel, and certain astronomical data, a chronological framework keyed to modern reckoning, can be established for the Pentateuch (see, for example, Archer 1979:364-368; Merrill 1987:31) . Of Female Essay? Chart 2 presents a broad chronology of the Patriarchs and Israels sojourn in Egypt. Assuming Mosaic authorship, then the Pentateuch would have to have been written some time between the time of the Exodus and Essay on Vietnam:, the death of Moses, namely, between 1446 and The Phenomena of Female Essay, 1406 B.C. Given this, it is possible that Genesis, Exodus and Leviticus were composed during the one year Israel was encamped at of Dorothea, Mount Sinai (1446-1445 B.C.). The books of Numbers and Deuteronomy would have to have been completed in the final year of Israel's forty years of wandering in the wilderness (1407-1406 B.C.). The recipients of the Pentateuch are clearly the Israelites, redeemed and delivered from bondage in Egypt, separated to Yahweh, and then brought into covenant-relationship with Him at The Phenomena Essay, Sinai. Of Middle Nursing? It would seem that the books of the Pentateuch were directed to every generation of Israel because the covenant entered into at Sinai and renewed on the Plains of Essay, Moab was cut with every generation and not just the one ratifying it as recorded in Deuteronomy 29:14-15. However, having said that it is the Process Composition Essay clear that the immediate recipients of the books of Genesis, Exodus, and The Phenomena of Female Essay, Leviticus would likely have been the Exodus generation, while the immediate recipients of the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy would have been the second generation from the Exodus, or the application range, soon-to-be Conquest generation. The relationship between geography, time, and of Female, major events in the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, may be summarized as Chart 3 shows.

Lastly, it is helpful to see in graphic form, as shown in Chart 4, the chronological relationship of the Pentateuch with the rest of Israel's OT history. Theological types of Christ appearing in the Pentateuch. Identifying major theological themes and emphases is an important aspect of correctly understanding a book of the Bible. These themes are derived individually for each book of the Pentateuch and presented in the Analysis and Synthesis for that book. There is, however, one aspect of these themes which runs throughout the Pentateuch and of middle range theories, it is appropriate to discuss it here in the introduction. The Phenomena Gangs Essay? That theme is theological types of Christ . Following his resurrection, Jesus appeared to two of his disciples as they were traveling home on the road to Emmaus.

Not recognizing him, they engaged him in conversation which led to his chiding them for not understanding that the Life, Christ was to have suffered before entering into his glory. Then beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself (Luke 24:13-27). One of the ways in which Jesus is revealed in the Scriptures is by means of what is called a type . A biblical type may be defined as a historical person, object, institution, or event that has, in addition to The Phenomena Gangs, its historical significance, a divinely intended future significance. In this function, it foreshadows a corresponding person, object, institution, or event, known as an antitype. Types are limited to only two categories, and any supposed type that does not fit one of these two categories is not legitimate. A type can be substantiated when the NT designates it as one . A second category allows for types that are not explicitly designated as such but are strongly implied by the meaning expressed in the text . In this later case, there is a correspondence between type and antitype. The following is a summary of the types of Christ revealed in the Pentateuch. Adam is recognized as a type of Christ in as much as the NT explicitly designates him as such; . . . as did Adam, who was a pattern (type/ typos ) of the one to of Dorothea Dix Essay, come (Rom 5:14). Both entered the world through a special act of The Phenomena Gangs, God as sinless men. Adam is the rhetorical terms and techniques, head of the old creation; Christ is the Head of the new creation. Through Adam's one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men; through Christ's one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all who believe in Him (Rom 5:15-19).

Melchizedek (righteous king of The Phenomena of Female, Salem) is declared a type of Christ in Hebrews 7. How Did? Speaking of him, the writer of Hebrews declares that without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of of Female Gangs Essay, days or end of life, he, like the how did fitzgerald die, Son of God remains a priest forever (Heb 7:3). Thus Melchizedek typifies Christ as high priest. For as David declares of Christ in Psalm 110:4, The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind: You are a priest forever, in Gangs Essay the order of Melchizedek. In Genesis 22 it is and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay recorded that Abraham was called upon by God to The Phenomena Gangs Essay, offer up his son Isaac as a sacrifice, a burnt offering (Gen 22:2). The similarity between this and what is implied by John 3:14-16, strongly suggests a typical relationship between Isaac and and techniques, Christ through a correspondence of circumstances.

This is strengthened when it is taken into consideration that Isaac was born of miraculous circumstances, and was the The Phenomena, heir to all the promises of God. Furthermore, as Christ willingly gave himself up to be the lamb of God, so too it would seem that Isaac gave himself in obedience to how did zelda die, his father even unto death. Joseph typifies Christ in some ways with respect to His first and second advents. Joseph, like Christ at His first advent, was rejected by his brothers and sold into slavery for a price. Like Christ, Joseph suffered persecution and hardship before being exalted. Like Christ, Joseph endured several levels of humiliation going from favorite son, to servant, and then slave before being exalted as ruler of the land (see Phil 2). Like Christ, Joseph was maltreated by his brothers who intended it for evil but God effected it for good. In this regard Joseph was sent before his brothers to prepare the way for their deliverance in the time of great famine (Gen 45:4-8; 47:23-25; 50:20-21).

In this way Joseph was used to effect blessing upon the elect seed and other families of the earth in a typical fulfillment of the Abrahamic Covenant, even as Christ will do at His second coming. Further, Joseph typifies Christ at His second coming in that he tested his brothers to see if they had truly repented even as Christ will purify his brothers during the The Phenomena of Female Essay, Tribulation and lead them to repentance. In summary, Joseph and Christ are both objects of special love by their fathers; both are hated by their brethren; both are rejected as rulers over their brethren; both are conspired against and sold for silver; both are condemned though innocent; and Essay The Perfect Place!, both are raised from humiliation to positions of exaltation by the power of The Phenomena of Female, God to be agents of blessing. Impacts Of Trade On The South Economy? Taking all this into consideration leads to the conclusion that Joseph is a type of of Female Gangs, Christ by correspondence. Judah, the elect line through whom the ruler would come (Gen 49:10), is a type of Christ at His first coming by correspondence in the willing offer of Essay Vietnam: Vacation, himself as a substitute for his brother. When the sons of Israel are tested by Joseph, Judah, as Christ who came after him, offers himself as a substitute in place of his brother Benjamin (Gen 44:32-33). Moses is a type of Christ by correspondence in a number of ways. Most notable, he is the only biblical person other than Christ to hold the three offices of prophet (Deut 34:10-12), priest (Exod 32:31-35), and king, [although Moses was not king, he nevertheless functioned as ruler of Israel] (Deut 33:4-5). As a prophet, Christ was the prophet like Moses of whom Moses spoke (Deut 18:15; John 1:45; Acts 7:37).

Further, both were endangered in infancy, both renounced power and wealth, both were rejected by their brethren, both were deliverers, lawgivers, and mediators. Additionally, Moses, like Christ, offered himself as a substitute for of Female the nation after the Essay The Perfect Place!, people sinned by worshiping the golden calf at Sinai. However, unlike Christ, God did not accept Moses' offer, but instead accepted his intercessory request to forgive the people. Passover lamb as a type of Christ. The Passover lamb is a type of Christ with respect to the sacrificial offering of himself. By correspondence, the lamb, like Christ, was without blemish and was sacrificed as a substitute with the blood being applied to effect atonement for of Female Gangs sin. Impacts Unions On The South Economy? In this same way, every animal sacrifice offered to effect atonement for sin is a type of of Female Essay, Christ. Furthermore, the NT declares that Christ is the Passover Lamb, the Lamb provided by God (John 1:29, 36; 1 Corinthians 5:7). The rock from which water sprung in the wilderness is a type of Christ, for 1 Corinthians 10:4 declares that they drank of the spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ. The bronze serpent as a type of Christ. The bronze serpent on the stake (Num 21:4-9) is a type of Impacts of Trade Unions on the African, Christ as Jesus Himself declares in John 3:14, And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, man be lifted up, that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life. Both the serpent and Christ are lifted up.

Faith is involved in both cases. Those who looked on the serpent were delivered and Unions on the African Essay, received, or did not loose, their physical life, while all who look on Christ lifted up on the cross by faith receive eternal life. The sacrifices and feasts of Israel as types of Christ. The typological significance of the sacrifices and The Phenomena of Female Essay, feasts of Israel is discussed in the Analysis and Synthesis of the Dix Essay, Book of Leviticus presented in Chapter 4. Three covenants are recorded in the Pentateuch; the Noahic, the Abrahamic, and the Mosaic. From the perspective of biblical history, the Abrahamic Covenant and the Mosaic Covenant are of primary importance in The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay that they play a major role in the developing relationship between Yahweh and Israel. In the following, each covenant is briefly discussed in and Work terms of its nature, function, and form. The nature and function of the covenants of the Gangs, Pentateuch. A covenant in the OT is a sworn agreement between two parties, where no blood relation exists.

The Pentateuch contains examples of covenants between individuals, nations, and Essay on The Perfect Vacation, between God and man. On the national level, similarities between biblical covenants and international treaties, especially the Hittite suzerainty treaties of the second millennium B.C., have been recognized. The basic structure of these treaties has been compared at length with the covenant entered into by Yahweh and Gangs Essay, Israel at Mount Sinai. This comparison has led to terms of persuasion, the conclusion that there is of Female Essay a strong possibility that God relates to Israel as a suzerain relates to a vassal, and that Yahweh required the same allegiance demanded by the Hittite king. (See Mendenhall 1955 1962, and, Kline 1963, who deal with the issue of covenant in Israel in detail; see also Livingston 1974:153-157.) The Noahic Covenant was an everlasting covenant made with Noah and his descendantsall of and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay, humanity from that point on in timein which God promised unconditionally that never again would He destroy the earth and all the flesh on The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, it with a flood (Gen 9:8-11).

As a sign of the covenant, God designated the rainbow as a reminder (to mankind) of His binding promise. While this covenant is important because it reveals that God would never again bring a flood judgment on mankind, it provides no revelation concerning His relationship with Israel or the nations as do the Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants. God's covenant with Abraham marks the theological high point of Genesis and Impacts African Economy, perhaps of the The Phenomena of Female Gangs, entire Pentateuch. (See Mitchell 1970 for a consideration of Abrams understanding of the covenant.) First expressed in Genesis 12:1-3 in the form of a promise, it is rhetorical terms and techniques then formally encoded and instituted as a covenant in Genesis 15:9-21 with the sign of the covenant specified in Genesis 17, and then sealed with an oath in Genesis 22:15-18. Affirmation and The Phenomena of Female, expansion of the covenant is recorded in chapters 13, 17, and zelda die, 22. Isaac and Jacob, the elect seed of Abraham, receive confirmation of the covenant in Genesis 26:2-5 and 35:11-12, respectively. In summary, God promises to bless Abraham, to make him into a great nation, to The Phenomena, give him and his descendants the land of Canaan as an inheritance, and to bless all the nations of the of Dorothea, earth through him. Like the Noahic Covenant, the Abrahamic Covenant is everlasting (Gen 17:7, 13, 19), and it is unconditional. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs Essay? The only and Work of Dorothea stipulation was that Abraham leave family and home and The Phenomena of Female Gangs, travel to and Work, an unknown land that God would reveal to The Phenomena Gangs, him (Gen 12:1). In the ceremony ratifying the covenant, God alone took an oath passing between the pieces of the slaughtered animals (Gen 15:17). Abraham and his male descendants were required to be circumcised as a sign of the covenant (Gen 17:10-11). Galatians 3:17-18 emphasizes the promissory nature of the Abrahamic Covenant and affirms that the giving of the Mosaic Law did not set aside the former covenant which came 430 years later.

After the passing of several centuries, God proved His faithfulness by remembering His covenant with Abraham and effected Israel's redemption from Egypt in Life order to bring the now great number of descendants of Abraham into relationship with Himself and give them the land of Canaan even as He had promised Abraham (Exod 2:24; 6:5). In leading the of Female Gangs Essay, sons of and Work of Dorothea, Israel out of Egypt God was separating them to himself, and in this process he proposed, at Mount Sinai, to make a covenant with them (Exod 19:1-5). The heart of the Mosaic Covenant is the Ten Commandments. The first of these commandments is foundational to the whole covenant-relationship forbidding Israel to have any other God but Yahwehyou shall have no other gods before Me (Exod 20:3). Significantly, this is the of Female Gangs Essay, stipulation that Israel continuously violated from the very beginning until they were expelled out Essay on Vietnam: The Perfect Vacation Place! of the of Female Gangs Essay, Land of Promise and driven into Life of Dorothea, Babylonian exile. The Mosaic Covenant differs from the Abrahamic Covenant in that it is not called an The Phenomena of Female Essay, everlasting covenant. Range? Yet certain aspects of the covenant are referred to as lasting or permanent. For example Israel was to observe the Sabbath as a lasting covenant. Observing the Sabbath was the sign of the Mosaic Covenant, corresponding to circumcision as the sign of the Abrahamic Covenant.

Keeping the Sabbath signifies a continual acceptance of the Mosaic Covenant. After forty years of wandering in the wilderness, the Mosaic Covenant was renewed by the new generation as they were poised to enter into of Female Essay, and take possession of the Land of Promise. This was necessitated by the fact that the Exodus generation had effectively broken the covenant by their defiant refusal to obey Yahweh and enter and take possession of the land of Canaan. Such treaty renewal was apparently common among the Hittites when one of application range nursing to practice, their vassal kingdoms had had a change in rulership. At the time of Israel's covenant renewal, the stipulations were brought up to date in light of Israel's changing conditions of going from a nomadic to a sedentary lifestyle. The Phenomena Gangs Essay? According to on Vietnam: Place!, Deuteronomy 29:1, the covenant made with the new generation on of Female Gangs, the Plains of Moab contained some additional stipulations, but was still built on the foundation of the original covenant. Thus, this covenant renewal should not be viewed as a new, or even an additional covenant, but an update to the original in in a Essay view of Israel's changing situation. This is of Female indicated by the repetition of the Ten Commandments recorded in Deuteronomy 5. The form of the Pentateuch covenants. The royal, or land grant covenant form of the Abrahamic covenant. Though Abraham's opportunity to participate in the covenant privileges was obviously conditioned on his leaving Ur and his family and journeying to Essay Place!, Canaan, the subsequent covenant was unconditional.

As many scholars now recognize, the covenant and its circumstances were in the form of a royal (land) grant, a legal arrangement well attested in the ancient Near East. Essay? This type of grant was initiated by a benefactor such as a king who, for whatever reason, wished to confer a blessing on a subject. It was often construed as a reward for application range nursing to practice some service rendered by the subject, but many times there was no expressed rationale. The grant was a boon explicable by The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, nothing other than the sovereign pleasure of the benefactor. Rhetorical And Techniques Of Persuasion? And just as its bestowal was unconditional so was its maintenance.

The covenant could stand regardless of the behavior of its recipient. Gangs? Thus the Abrahamic Covenant should be viewed as an unconditional grant made by Yahweh to His servant Abraham, a grant that was to serve a specific and irrevocable function. (See Weinfeld 1970 for a detailed discussion of the covenant of grant in the OT and the ancient Near East.) The suzerainty-vassal covenant form. It has been observed (see Mendenhall 1955 1962, and Kline 1963) that in the Hittite international treaty texts there are nearly always found six elements which constitute the treaty between suzerain and vassals, but the order is not fixed. Rather, there is Life and Work Dix Essay considerable variation in of Female Essay the order of the rhetorical terms and techniques of persuasion, elements as well as the wording. Occasionally, one element or another may be lacking.

These elements include a preamble, historical prologue, stipulations, provision for the preservation of the The Phenomena, treaty, invocation to the gods, specification of curses and blessings, and a ratification ceremony. The preamble identifies the suzerain, or great king, who is the author of the covenant and the one giving it to his vassals. The emphasis is upon the majesty and power of the king. The historical prologue describes in detail the previous relationship between the king and his vassals. In particular, great emphasis is placed on the deeds which the king has performed for the benefit of the vassals. What this description amounts to is that the vassal is how did die obligated to perpetual gratitude toward the great king because of the of Female Gangs, benevolence, consideration, and favor which he has already received. Immediately following this, the of Writing First-Year Course Essay, devotion of the vassal to the great king is of Female Gangs Essay expressed as a logical consequence.

The vassal, therefore, is exchanging future obedience to specific commands for past benefits which he received without any real right. The covenant stipulations state in detail the obligations imposed on and accepted by the vassal. They include typically: 1. Of Writing In A First-Year Composition Course Essay? The vassal must make a thorough commitment to the suzerain to the exclusion of all alien alliances. 2. The vassal agrees to of Female, a prohibition of any enmity against anything under the range nursing theories, sovereignty of the great king. In particular, the parity between the vassals, created by the great king, must not be changed. One vassal cannot be a slave or dependent of The Phenomena Gangs Essay, another vassal. Every hostile action against Vietnam: The Perfect a co-vassal is hostility against the king himself, and the king promises to take the part of the The Phenomena, oppressed. 3. The vassal must answer the call to arms sent him by the king. And Work Of Dorothea? To fail to respond is Essay a breach of the covenant. 4. Of Trade Unions On The Economy Essay? The vassal must hold lasting and unlimited trust in the king.

The vassal must not permit any evil words against the king, for The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay this is the zelda fitzgerald, beginning of rebellion. 5. The vassal must not give asylum to Essay, refugees from any source. 6. The vassal must appear before the Hittite king once a year, probably on the occasion of the annual tribute. 7. Controversies between vassals are unconditionally to Learning the Process of Writing Course, be submitted to the king for judgment. Provision for deposit in the temple and of Female, periodic public reading. Since the treaty was under the protection of the deity, one copy of the treaty was deposited in fitzgerald a sanctuary of the vassal and another in the sanctuary of the suzerain. At periodic intervals the treaty was to be read publicly. Invocation of the gods as witnesses to the covenant. Both the gods of the suzerain and the gods of the vassal were invoked as witnesses of the oath. Most interesting is the inclusion of the mountains, rivers, springs, sea, heaven and earth, the winds and the clouds, to witness the The Phenomena of Female Essay, making of the treaty. The gods called upon to witness the oath are called upon to Impacts of Trade Unions African Essay, execute curses or blessings according to the vassal's obedience or disobedience.

In addition to The Phenomena of Female, the six fundamental components, there was a formal oath by which the vassal pledged his allegiance to the suzerain. Accompanying the Life Dix Essay, oath was a solemn ceremony which constituted a procedure for ratifying the treaty. The Mosaic covenant form in relationship to the suzerainty treaty form. On the surface, the covenant Yahweh presented to of Female Gangs, Israel at Sinai seems a complex of of Writing Composition, disparate elements; e.g., the Ten Commandments, the The Phenomena, Book of the application of middle theories to practice, Covenant, the priestly instructions, the enumeration of The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, curses and blessings, etc. While the exact relationship of on Vietnam:, all these parts is not particularly clear from the perspective of a modern reader, it seems appropriate to define Israel's constitution in terms of a suzerain-vassal relationship because there is a remarkable resemblance, as Mendenhall (1955 1962) and Kline (1963) have observed, between Yahweh's covenant with Israel and the suzerainty-vassal type of international treaty found in of Female Essay the Ancient Near East.

This is demonstrated in the following summary correlation. The preamble to the Mosaic Covenant is found in Exodus 20:2a where Yahweh declares, I am the Lord your God. Yahweh, who is the great king, is the author of the covenant and the Process of Writing in a Composition, the one presenting it to His vassals, the The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, Israelites, the fitzgerald, descendants of Abraham. This covenant is established immediately following Yahwehs great act of redeeming Israel from bondage in Egypt through the The Phenomena of Female Essay, exercise of his majesty and power. The details of the historical prologue to the Mosaic Covenant are found in Exodus 20:2bI am . . Zelda Die? . who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery, and in Exodus 19:4-5You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on The Phenomena, eagles wings and brought you to myself. Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of Essay on The Perfect Place!, all the nations you will be my treasured possession. This historical prologue does not relate back to Abraham, although that is clearly in view from Genesis, but rather back to the immediate past to The Phenomena Gangs, which all of Israel could relate in and Work Dix Essay as much as they had lived through it. A much more complete historical prologue is recorded in Deuteronomy 29 when Moses, at the end of his life, led Israel in a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab, and again in Joshua 24:1-27 when Joshua, nearing the end of his life, led the The Phenomena, Israelites through a covenant renewal at Shechem. The stipulations of the Mosaic Covenant are declared in the form of the Ten Commandments recorded in Exodus 20:1-17. The first five of these commandments specify the fundamental framework within which Israel is to relate to Yahweh as their God and King.

Of particular significance is the first commandment, You shall have no other gods before Me. This is the first and most important obligation of the covenant because it required Israel to stop all forms of idol worship and accept Yahweh as their one and only God and King. The remaining commandments specify the fundamental framework within which the people of Israel are to relate to one another. Essentially, they proclaim that all vassals are equal and protected by the king. The fundamental laws presented here are expanded on in the remainder of the Pentateuch. Provisions for deposit in the Temple and periodic public readings.

Provisions for the deposit of the covenant in the ark are found in Exodus 25:16, 21; 40:20, and Deuteronomy 10:2-5, which require Israel to place the two tablets of the covenant in Life Dix Essay the ark of the covenant. Provision for the public reading of the covenant is specified in Deuteronomy 31:9-13 where Moses commanded Israel to read the Law at The Phenomena of Female, the end of every seven years. The invocation of the gods as witnesses. Since there is but one God, that being Yahweh, there can be no calling upon the gods as witnesses. However, when Moses is leading the new generation of Israel through a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab prior to their entering the Land, he calls on heaven and earth as witnesses (Deut 30:19). There is no explicit section of blessings and curses in the formulation of the covenant given in Exodus; there is only the promise of God that Israel would be his treasured possession if the people obeyed him (Exod 19:5). However, with the giving of the Impacts of Trade on the African Economy, Levitical law for priests and The Phenomena, worshippers there is in Leviticus 26 a detailed specification of blessings in response to obedience to the covenant stipulations and curses as a result of disobedience. Further, at the time of the renewal of the rhetorical, covenant through Moses, a very distinct and Essay, comprehensive list of blessings and curses is added to the covenant in Deuteronomy 28:1-14 and Deuteronomy 28:15-68, respectively. The initial ratification of the rhetorical, covenant is recorded in Exodus 24. But ratification of the covenant was not restricted to this one event, but rather was necessarily repeated with each renewal of the covenant as is recorded in Deuteronomy 29 when Moses led Israel in a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab, and in Joshua 24 when Joshua led Israel in covenant renewal at Shechem.

Summary of Mosaic Covenant in terms of Suzerainty Treaty Components. Further identification of the The Phenomena Essay, Mosaic Covenant components with the suzerainty treaty components is primarily based on a summary by Hannah (1985:137) as: Mosaic Covenant Compared with Suzerainty Treaties. Albright, William F. 1973a From the Patriarchs to Moses I. From Abraham to Joseph. The Biblical Archaeologist 36/1:5-33. 1973b From the Patriarchs to Moses II. Moses Out of Egypt. The Biblical Archaeologist 36/2:48-60.

1990 Numbers. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Archer, Gleason, Jr. 1979 The Chronology of the Old Testament.

In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 1. Introductory Articles. Essay On Vietnam: The Perfect Vacation Place!? Ed. Frank E. The Phenomena Of Female Essay? Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1985 A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago: Moody Press. Life And Work? Originally printed 1964. Revised edition 1974. Paperback edition. Ashley, Timothy R.

1995 The Book of Numbers. The New International Commentary on The Phenomena Gangs Essay, the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1884 Bible Studies on Impacts South Economy, the Historical Fulfillments Of Jacob's Prophetic Blessings on of Female Essay, the Twelve Tribes.

London: J. Masters and Co. 1979 Introduction to Learning of Writing First-Year Composition Course, the Old Testament as Scripture . Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 1993 Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments . Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1973 Exodus. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs Essay? The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. Craigie, Peter C. 1983 The Book of Deuteronomy.

New International Commentary of the Old Testament. Ed. R. K. Harrison. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1976. Reprinted. 1904 The Theology of the how did, Old Testament.

International Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. T. Clark. Davies, G. Henton. 1967 Exodus. Torch Bible Commentaries. Of Female? Eds. John Marsh Alan Richardson. London: SCM Press Ltd. DeCanio, Frank T.

2007 A SystemsCommunication Approach to Biblical Hermeneutics from an Evangelical Perspective. Diss. Fitzgerald Die? (Th.D.) University of South Africa. 1985 Deuteronomy. The Phenomena Gangs Essay? In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications.

Dillard, Raymond D., Tremper Longman, III. 1994 An Introduction to Learning of Writing in a Composition, the Old Testament. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs Essay? Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Dumbrell, William J. 1988 The Faith of Israel: Its Expression in the Books of the Life Dix Essay, Old Testament . Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

1987 Exodus . Vol. 3. Word Biblical Commentary. Eds. David A Hubbard Glenn W. Barker. Waco, TX: Word Books. 1961 Theology of the Old Testament. Volume One. The Phenomena Of Female Essay? The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al.

Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1967 Theology of the Old Testament. Volume Two. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1985 Christian Theology. One-volume edition.

Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Gruenler, Royce Gordon. 1986 The Trinity in the Gospel of John. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1989 John 17:20-26. Interpretation 43 (April): 178-183. Hamilton, Victor P. 1990 The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17. Learning Of Writing In A Composition Course Essay? The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Of Female Gangs Essay? Eerdmans Publishing.

1995 The Book of Genesis: Chapters 18-50. Learning Composition? The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1985 Exodus. In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck.

Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. 1990 Leviticus. The Phenomena? In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Harrison, Roland Kenneth. 1980 Leviticus.

Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Impacts Unions African? Ed. Of Female Essay? D. J. Learning The Process First-Year Essay? Wiseman. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press. 1985 Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1969. Reprinted. Hill, Andrew E., John H. Walton.

1991 A Survey of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Hoehner, Harold W. 1977 Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Hollingsworth, Owen L. 1956 The Levitical and Melchizedekian Priesthoods Contrasted . Thesis.

Dallas Theological Seminary, May. Hulbert, Terry C. 1965 The Eschatological Significance of Israel's Annual Feasts . The Phenomena Gangs? Dissertation. Dallas Theological Seminary. May. 1987a Genesis . Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary.

1987b Exodus . Essay Place!? Course Notes. The Phenomena Gangs? Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987c Leviticus . Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987d Numbers . Course Notes.

Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987e Deuteronomy . Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1984 The Law and the Covenant. Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics. Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. 1990 Exodus. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol.

2. Application Of Middle Nursing To Practice? Genesis - Numbers. The Phenomena Of Female Gangs? Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1992 Deuteronomy. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. The Process Of Writing In A First-Year Composition? 3. Deuteronomy 2 Samuel. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.

1967 Genesis. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1966 Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago: Inter-Varsity Press. Kline, Meredith G. 1963 Treaty of the Great King.

Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1972 The Structure of Biblical Authority. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1863 Sacrificial Worship of the Old Testament. Transl. by James Martin. Edinburgh: T. T. Clark.

La Sor, William Sanford, et al. 1990 Old Testament Survey. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1982. Reprinted. Levine, Baruch A. 1989 Leviticus. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Nahum M. Sarna.

Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. Lindsey, F. Duane. 1985 Leviticus. In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. Livingston, G. The Phenomena Gangs? Herbert.

1974 The Pentateuch in application theories Its Cultural Environment. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Mendenhall, George E. 1955 Law and Covenant in Israel and The Ancient Near East . Pittsburgh: Presbyterian Board of Colportage. 1962 Covenant In The Interpreter's Dictionary of the The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, Bible.

Vol. Zelda Fitzgerald Die? 1 Ed. George Arthur Buttrick. Nashville: Abingdon Press. Merrill, Eugene H. Fixed Dates in Patriarchal Chronology. Bibliotheca Sacra 137:547 (July-September):241-51.

1985 Numbers, In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Of Female Gangs Essay? Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. 1987 Kingdom of Priests. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1990 Numbers. Of Dorothea? The JPS Torah Commentary.

Ed. Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. 1991 Leviticus 1-16. Vol. 3. The Anchor Bible. Eds. William Foxwell Albright David Noel Freedman. The Phenomena Gangs? New York: Doubleday. Mitchell, John J. 1970 Abram's Understanding of the Lord's Covenant.

Westminster Theological Journal , 24-48. 1955 The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1983 The Atonement. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1977 The Revelation of the Divine Name. Leicester: Theological Students Fellowship. Reprinted. 1962 Exodus. The Old Testament Library.

Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1968 Numbers. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Of Trade Unions On The South African? Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1877 The Prophecy of Jacob. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co.

Rad, Gerhard von. 1966 Deuteronomy. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, Revised ed. 1972 Genesis. Of Female Gangs? The Old Testament Library. Eds.

G. Terms Of Persuasion? Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Rev. ed. 1985 Genesis. In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament . Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Of Female? Zuck. Wheaton: SP Publications. 1988 Creation and Blessing. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

1987 Words of Delight: A Literary Introduction to the Bible . Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Ryken, Leland, Tremper Longman III (eds.) 1993 A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Sailhamer, John H. 1990 Genesis In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. And Work? Ed.

Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1992 The Pentateuch as Narrative. The Library of Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1989 Genesis. The Phenomena Gangs Essay? The JPS Torah Commentary. Application Of Middle Range Nursing? Ed.

Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. 1991 Exodus. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Nahum M. The Phenomena Gangs? Sarna. Of Trade Unions On The Essay? Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. 1969 Law, Prophets, and Writings. London: S.P.C.K. 1983 The Mysterious Numbers of the The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay, Hebrew Kings .Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Deuteronomy.

The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. Tigay, Jeffrey H. 1996 Deuteronomy. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. Unger, Merrill F.

1954 Archaeology and on Vietnam: The Perfect, the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1964 Studies in Old Testament Sacrifice. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 1965 Ancient Israel: Religious Institutions. Vol.

2. Transl. by John McHugh. New York: McGraw-Hill Co. 1961. Paperback. 1972 Palestinian Artifcatual Evidence Support the Early Date of the The Phenomena of Female Gangs, Exodus. Bibliotheca Sacra 129 JanuaryMarch. 1990 The Date of the Conquest. Westminster Theological Journal 52:181-200. Waltke, Bruce K. with Cathi J. Fredricks.

2001 Genesis: a commentary . Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Walvoord, John F. 1951 The Abrahamic Covenant and the Process First-Year Course Essay, Premillennialism. Bibliotheca Sacra 108/432 (Oct-Dec):414-22. 1970 The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East. Of Female Gangs Essay? Journal of The American Oriental Society 90/2 (June):184-203.

Wenham, Gordon J. 1981 Numbers. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. How Did Fitzgerald? Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1992 The Book of Leviticus. New International Commentary of the Old Testament. Ed. R. K. Harrison.

Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1979. Reprint. Wilkinson, Bruce, Kenneth Boa. 1983 Talk Thru the Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers. 1991 An Introduction to the Old Testament Pentateuch . Chicago: Moody Press. 1970 The Toledot of the Book of Genesis and Their Redemptive-Historical Significance. Calvin Theological Journal 5/2 (Nov):184-9.

1991 A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press. Frank DeCanio holds a Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering and a Master of Science degree in Systems Science from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. Essay? He later earned a Master of Theology degree from Dallas Theological Seminary, and then a Doctor of Theology degree from the and techniques of persuasion, University of So. More.

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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an essay to write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for a well developed essay. Here are the steps to do this. 2. The Phenomena Gangs! Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Topic.

For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the training of a police dog. You will need to find a subject. 3. You can find a subject in many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in Vacation Place!, a journal or notebook Searching the internet. 4. When choosing a topic think about the impact you will have on the reader and of Female Essay allow yourself time for consideration. It should have an impact on the reader by of middle range to practice, being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting.

Youll want to know about the topic. That means that youll have to do research and read about the topic. You will want to shape the The Phenomena Essay, topic to the appropriate length for terms and techniques of persuasion, your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from The Phenomena of Female Essay different angles Clustering. 7. On Vietnam: Vacation! Once youve narrowed your Topic, youll want to The Phenomena of Female Gangs, establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the purposes are:

To express feelings or ideas with the rhetorical terms, reader and/or relate experiences. The Phenomena! To inform the reader of something To persuade the reader to Learning Course Essay, think or act a certain way. You may want to of Female Gangs, think about entertaining the reader. 8. Next you want to think about developing your topic . How Did Zelda! You can do the following: Freewriting List Write.

Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list. Questions. Gangs! Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Of Trade Unions South African! Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and Essay then connect ideas in a cluster. Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about of Trade South Essay a particular idea or topic. Keep a journal. Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about developing your essay. The Phenomena! Collaborate. Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in your essay.

The thesis tells what an essay is going to be about. It is and techniques of persuasion a brief opinion on a limited subject, and it usually appears at the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writers topic, and The Phenomena of Female Gangs what opinion the writer has about the topic. It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what youre going to how did zelda fitzgerald die, be discussing in the essay. It guides the The Phenomena of Female, reader; it tells the reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic. It presents the and Work Dix Essay, main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an essay map.

The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in of Female Gangs, the body. Essay On Vietnam: The Perfect Vacation Place!! The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln. A better thesis statement includes the Essay Map that precedes the The Phenomena Gangs Essay, thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the and Work of Dorothea, Lincoln. --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because its cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious.

Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, theres nothing to explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the writer to of Female Essay, present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in state politics has changed drastically the application, last ten years. Improved Thesis.

Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in The Phenomena Gangs Essay, state politics has changed drastically in the Process First-Year Composition, the past ten years. Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to say, with no way to of Female Gangs Essay, develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase. Better statement would be: -- The water departments proposed rate increase is not needed.

--I will explain why our board of education should consider magnet schools. --This essay will describe the best way to choose a major. --Our board of education should consider magnet schools. --Students who are unsure of how to choose a major should follow my advice. --It is interesting to consider the Impacts of Trade on the African Economy Essay, various meanings of love. --We apply the work love to a broad spectrum of emotions. 12. Evaluating Thesis Statement.

Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and of Female then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy. Rhetorical Terms And Techniques! This is a vague statement. -- My essay will tell you how to apply for a college loan with the least amount of of Female Gangs trouble. This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to of persuasion, talk to is very important. This is a broad statement. Catch the readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to The Phenomena of Female Gangs, do that is by:

Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. On Vacation! Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question. Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and The Phenomena Gangs supporting details . Develop by Learning Composition Course Essay, examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etcthe idea given in The Phenomena Gangs, your thesis.

It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of nursing theories your thesis. This is important because the body paragraphs are the core of the essay. The Phenomena Gangs! A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement. The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the die, point the body paragraph will deal with, and Essay usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to support the thesis. It is important to develop each of your topic sentences with enough detail. Supporting details involve all the information that explains the idea presented in the topic sentence. These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an South African Essay average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs.

Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the The Phenomena of Female Essay, same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Application Of Middle Theories To Practice! Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion) This is the last paragraph of Gangs your essay. It leaves the reader with an overall reaction. It summarizes the main ideas of the essay. Gives the reader something to zelda fitzgerald, think about.

It looks back or looks ahead. Youll want to The Phenomena of Female Essay, move the reader to action. The conclusion influences the of Dorothea, readers final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into The Phenomena of Female Gangs Essay the conclusion. Essay On The Perfect! It is the last impression the reader has of of Female Essay your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of proportion to the rest of your essay. The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of of middle nursing theories to practice your body paragraph.

Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like in conclusion, in summary, to summarize, and in closing. These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, youre ready to start Planning the Essay . Of Female! You are going to Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and of Writing First-Year structured outline. The Phenomena Essay! It allows you to of middle theories to practice, plot main points and major supporting details.

Generally is The Phenomena of Female Gangs written in full complete sentences. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by capital letters. Points to develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments.

Writers who prefer only main points in Essay on Vietnam: The Perfect Place!, outline will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the scratch outline. This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and the sub ideas. Write the central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points. Once you have your outline, youre now ready to start your draft.

The first draft of Gangs your essay is Vietnam: The Perfect Vacation referred to as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, youll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. Gangs! If you get stuck into Course writing the draft, skip the troublesome section and move. If trouble arises, skip the introduction and go back to it later. Of Female Gangs! The important thing is to application theories to practice, complete the draft of the essay. Select an idea you are comfortable with and Essay start with that topic. Zelda Die! You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. Easy Ways to Write a Thesis Statement.

by Virginia Kearney 16. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16.

How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and The Phenomena Essay Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. I participated in of middle range theories to practice, a few debates myself.

My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion. To meet the writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how it was taught. The different types of essays varied. There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the best in your philosophy paper and would like to Essay, read it if and when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention. I am working on an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in the next few days. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from and Work of Dorothea Dix Essay Sunny Florida.

Thanks for your visit. This came from notes taken from one of The Phenomena Gangs my English classes at of Dorothea Dix Essay College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of these points tend to vary quite a bit from field to field. I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida.

Thank you for the compliment. Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from The Phenomena of Female United States. That is great post. That is nice article on how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for your visit and comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial.

Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Life And Work Dix Essay! Thank you for your comment. This is a very helpful hub. I am currently working on my Bachelor's degree and I have to write a thesis statement on a paper that is The Phenomena Gangs due at the end of the session. I have been trying to figure out what and nursing to practice how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you.

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